1. B. The cellular processes that are going to be affected if Joseph’s heart has stopped; each cell continued working, using up its ATP supply. Carbon dioxide levels inside the cells will rise and the pH will begin to drop, the mitochondria have no more oxygen and glucose to make ATP. The cells began to die. The cells become leaky, because the active transport pump shuts down. Sodium began leaking into the cells and potassium leaked out. The chemical gradients diminish, the heart convulsed in an uncontrolled spasm of arrhythmic electrical activity. The membrane functions that will be affected are, the active transport pump will shut down the plasma membranes of the heart. 2. C. Every intracellular organelle has membranes that are included in its structure. The lack of ATPases had stopped moving calcium from the cytosol into the ER of the cardiac muscle. Lysosomal enzymes began to digest the plasma membrane and membranes of the organelles. Not having a membrane will cause the intracellular calcium levels rise, and cause proteases to spill into the interior of the cell attacking the cytosol. 3. D. Joseph’s predisposition for vascular disease is within the, DNA. The instructions his body needs to repair itself, would be in the mRNA, which directs the synthesis of specific proteins that will aid in repairing the body. 4. E. The type of proteins in the cell membrane that were involved in the homeostatic imbalances of his heart cells were ATPases, and ATP. The lack of ATP affected the membrane pumps, and ATPases had stopped moving calcium from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum of his heart cells. 5. F. It was important to reestablish oxygen flow to Joseph’s body because oxygen is required by cells to produce ATP. The processes that would be affected by this would be multiple cellular processes, including mitosis, and homeostasis. 6. H. Joseph’s heart failed because, his cardiac muscle cells struggled to survive caused by the vascular...
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