top-rated free essay

Jose P. Riza;

By hossananiel Jan 07, 2013 1021 Words
Jose Rizal was a man of incredible intellectual power, with amazing artistic talent as well. He excelled at anything that he put his mind to - medicine, poetry, sketching, architecture, sociology... the list seems nearly endless. Thus, Rizal's martyrdom by the Spanish colonial authorities while he was still quite young was a huge loss to the Philippines, and to the world at large. Today, the people of the Philippines honor him as their national hero. On June 19, 1861, Francisco Rizal Mercado and Teodora Alonzo y Quintos welcomed their seventh child into the world at Calamba, Laguna. They named the boy Jose Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda. The Mercado family were wealthy farmers who rented land from the Dominican religious order. Descendants of a Chinese immigrant named Domingo Lam-co, they changed their name to Mercado ("market") under the pressure of anti-Chinese feeling amongst the Spanish colonizers. From an early age, Jose Rizal Mercado showed a precocious intellect. He learned the alphabet from his mother at 3, and could read and write at age 5. Jose Rizal Mercado attended the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, graduating at the age of 16 with highest honors. He took a post-graduate course there in land surveying. Rizal Mercado completed his surveyor's training in 1877, and passed the licensing exam in May 1878, but could not receive a license to practice because he was only 17 years old. (He was granted a license in 1881, when he reached the age of majority.) In 1878, the young man also enrolled in the University of Santo Tomas as a medical student. He later quit the school, alleging discrimination against Filipino students by the Dominican professors. In May of 1882, Jose Rizal got on a ship to Spain without informing his parents of his intentions. He enrolled at the Universidad Central de Madrid. In June of 1884, he received his medical degree at the age of 23; the following year, he also graduated from the Philosophy and Letters department. Inspired by his mother's advancing blindness, Rizal next went to the University of Paris and then the University of Heidelberg to complete further study in the field of ophthalmology. At Heidelberg, he studied under the famed professor Otto Becker. Rizal finished his second doctorate at Heidelberg in 1887. Jose Rizal lived in Europe for 10 years. During that time, he picked up a number of languages; in fact, he could converse in more than 10 different tongues. While in Europe, the young Filipino impressed everyone who met him with his charm, his intelligence, and his mastery of an incredible range of different fields of study. Rizal excelled at martial arts, fencing, sculpture, painting, teaching, anthropology, and journalism, among other things. During his European sojourn, he also began to write novels. Rizal finished his first book, Noli Me Tangere, while living in Wilhemsfeld with the Reverend Karl Ullmer. Rizal wrote Noli Me Tangere in Spanish; it was published in 1887 in Berlin. The novel is a scathing indictment of the Catholic Church and Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines. This book cemented Jose Rizal on the Spanish colonial government's list of troublemakers. When Rizal returned home for a visit, he received a summons from the Governor General, and had to defend himself from charges of disseminating subversive ideas. Although the Spanish governor accepted Rizal's explanations, the Catholic Church was less willing to forgive. In 1891, Rizal published a sequel, titled El Filibusterismo. Both in his novels and in newspaper editorials, Jose Rizal called for a number of reforms of the Spanish colonial system in the Philippines. He advocated freedom of speech and assembly, equal rights before the law for Filipinos, and Filipino priests in place of the often-corrupt Spanish churchmen. In addition, Rizal called for the Philippines to become a province within Spain, with representation in the Spanish legislature (the Cortes Generales). Rizal never called for independence for the Philippines. Nonetheless, the colonial government considered him a dangerous radical, and declared him an enemy of the state. In 1892, Rizal returned to the Philippines. He was almost immediately accused of being involved in the brewing rebellion, and was exiled to Dapitan, on the island of Mindanao. Rizal would stay there for four years, teaching school and encouraging agricultural reforms. During that same period, the people of the Philippines grew more eager to revolt against the Spanish colonial presence. Inspired in part by Rizal's organization, La Liga, rebel leaders like Andres Bonifacio began to press for military action against the Spanish regime. In Dapitan, Rizal met and fell in love with Josephine Bracken, who brought her stepfather to him for a cataract operation. The couple applied for a marriage license, but were denied by the Church (which had excommunicated Rizal). The Philippine Revolution broke out in 1896. Rizal denounced the violence, and received permission to travel to Cuba in order to tend victims of yellow fever in exchange for his freedom. Bonifacio and two associates sneaked aboard the ship to Cuba before it left the Philippines, trying to convince Rizal to escape with them, but Rizal refused. He was arrested by the Spanish on the way, taken to Barcelona, and then extradited to Manila for trial. Jose Rizal was tried by court martial, charged with conspiracy, sedition and rebellion. Despite a lack of any evidence of his complicity in the Revolution, Rizal was convicted on all counts and given the death sentence. He was allowed to marry Josephine two hours before his execution by firing squad on December 30, 1896. Jose Rizal was just 35 years old. Jose Rizal is remembered today throughout the Philippines for his brilliance, his courage, his peaceful resistance to tyranny, and his compassion. Filipino school children study his final literary work, a poem called Mi Ultimo Adios ("My Last Goodbye"), as well as his two famous novels. Spurred on by Rizal's martyrdom, the Philippine Revolution continued until 1898. With assistance from the United States, the Philippine archipelago was able to defeat the Spanish army. The Philippines declared its independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. It was the first democratic republic in Asia.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Life of Dr. Jose P. Rizal

    ...José Rizal |Date of birth: |June 19, 1861. | |Place of birth: |Calamba, Laguna, Philippines | |Date of death: |December 30, 1896 (aged 35) | |Place of death: |Bagumbayan (now Rizal...

    Read More
  • Jose P. Rizal

    ...In full, JOSÉ PROTACIO RIZAL MERCADO Y ALONSO REALONDA (born 19 June 1861, Calamba, Philippines- died 30 December 1896, Manila, Philippines), patriot, physician and man of letters whose life and literary works were an inspiration to the Philippine nationalist movement. Rizal was the son of a prosperous landowner and sugar planter of Chinese-Fi...

    Read More
  • Riza

    ...This novel and its sequel, El filibusterismo (nicknamed El Fili), were banned in some parts of the Philippines because of their portrayal of corruption and abuse by the country's Spanish government and clergy. Copies of the book were smuggled in nevertheless, and when Rizal returned to the Philippines after completing medical studies, he quickly...

    Read More
  • Jose P. Laurel

    ...I, Jose Paciano Laurel, do solemnly swear before the people that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as president of the Philippines, preserve and defend its constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man and consecrate myself to the service of the nation. Good afternoon, ladies and gentle. My fellow countrymen, ...

    Read More
  • Jose Rizal

    ...JOse Rizal moview review José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda[6] (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist and revolutionary. He is considered one of the national heroes of the Philippines, together with Andres Bonifacio.[7] Studying in Europe, he was the most prominent advocate for reform in the Philippines ...

    Read More
  • Jose

    ...Juan Osong There is a story from the olden days about Juan Pusong. Juan Pusong was a watcher of· cows. The cows were in a corral along the beach. One day Pusong went to the corral to inspect the cows. What he did was to cut off the tails of all the cows and bury them in the ground so only their tips showed. He then opened the corral and d...

    Read More
  • Jose Rizal from Wikipedia

    ...José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino polymath, patriot and the most prominent advocate for reform in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial era. He is regarded as the foremost Filipino patriot and is listed as one of the national heroes of the Philippines by the National Her...

    Read More
  • Essay of Jose Rizal

    ...José Rizal is a 1998 Filipino biographical film of the Philippine national hero José Rizal directed by Marilou Diaz-Abaya and starring Cesar Montano as José Rizal. At the time of its release, it was the most expensive film in the history of Philippine cinema with a budget of over PhP.80 million. The film was an official entry to the 1998 Met...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.