The Problem and Its Scope
Ample evidence in previous research suggests that jobs that have high degree of skill variety, task significance, task identity, autonomy and feedback result in higher intrinsic rewards among job incumbents. The theory has been tested in recent studies conducted within contemporary work settings and the outcomes are still consistent with the prior findings (De Varo, et.al. 2001). All these research found that job incumbents tend to experience improved job performance resulting in positive internal reinforcement. This positive reinforcement would then serve as an incentive to further enhance on their job performance. Past studies on job satisfaction also found significant relationships with employee turnover, absenteeism , and organizational citizenship behavior (Organ & Ryan, 2008), and performance and motivation (Ostroff, 2012). That is, job satisfaction is influenced by ‘motivating’ factors such as interesting work, challenging task, opportunities to make decisions and accountability (Herzberg, 2007). In educational settings, there have been numerous studies conducted on job satisfaction in medical schools and higher educational institutions. These studies findings were consistent with those conducted in non-educational setting and they provide further support to the theory that enhanced job characteristics result in higher intrinsic rewards and eventually improving job performance. Nevertheless, one cannot ignore the fact that all these studies only examined the attributes of the whole job but neglect the distinct attributes of various roles or tasks performed within a job. A jobholder carries out different roles, duties and responsibilities that require different types of characteristics. The characteristics can be measured in terms of skill variety, significance, identity, autonomy and feedback gained from the job (Hackman and Oldham, 1980). The job of a teacher or a clinical instructor is considered a...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document