Job Performance 1991
Sabine Sonnentag, Judith Volmer and
Individual performance is of high relevance for organizations and individuals alike. Showing high performance when accomplishing tasks results in satisfaction, feelings of selfefficacy and mastery (Bandura, 1997; Kanfer et aL, 2005). Moreover, high performing individuals get promoted, awarded and honored. Career opportunities for individuals who perform well are much better than those of moderate or low performing individuals (Van
Scotter et aI., 2000).
This chapter summarizes research on individual performance and addresses performance as a multi-dimensional and dynamic concept. First, we define the concept of performance, next we discuss antecedents of between-individual variation of performance, and describe intraindividual change and variability in performance, and finally, we present a research agenda for future research.
JOB PERFORMANCE AS A
The concept and definition of individual performance has received considerable scholarly research attention over the past 15 to 20 years.
Researchers agree that performance has to be considered as a multi-dimensional concept.
On the most basic level one can distinguish between a process aspect (i.e., behavioral) and an outcome aspect of performance (Borman and Motowidlo, 1993; C ampb ell, McCloy,
Oppler, and Sager, 1993; Roe, 1999).
The behavioral aspect refers to what people do while at work, the action itself
(Campbell, 1990). Performance encompasses specific behavior (e.g., sales conversations with customers, teaching statistics to undergraduate students, programming computer software, assembling parts of a product). This conceptualization implies that only actions that can be scaled (i.e., counted) are regarded as performance (Campbell et al., 1993). Moreover, this performance concept explicitly only describes behavior which is goal-oriented,
References: Ackerman, P. L. (1987) 'Individual differences in skill learning: An integration of psychometric and Allworth, E. and Hesketh, B. (1999) 'Construct-oriented biodata: Capturing change-related and contextually Bandura, A. (1997) Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman Bacharach, S. B. and Bamberger, P. (1995) 'Beyond situational constraints: Job resources inadequacy and Barrick, M. R. and Mount, M. K. (1991) 'The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A metaanalysis ', Personnel Psychology, 44: 1-26 Beal, D. J. Weiss, H. M. Barros, E. and MacDermid, S. M. (2005) 'An episodic process model of affective Black, J. 5., Mendenhall, M. and Oddou, G. (1991) 'Toward a comprehensive model of international Borman, W. C. and Motowidlo, S. J. (1993) 'Expanding the Criterion Domain to Include Elements of Brown, K. G., Le, H. and Schmidt, F. L. (2006) 'Specific aptitude theory revisited: Is there incremental validity Burke, R. J. and Ng, E. (2006) 'The changing nature of work and organizations: Implications for Campbell, J. P., Glaser, M. B. and Oswald, F. L. (1996) 'The substantive nature of job performance Pulakos, E. D. (1990) 'Development of multiple job performance measures in a representative sample of Sager, C. E. (1993) 'A theory of performance ', in C Chen, G., Thomas, B. and Wallace, J. C. (2005) 'A multilevel examination of the relationships among Clevenger, J., Pereira, G. M. and Wiechmann, D. (2001) 'Incremental validity of situational judgment tests ', Conway, J. M. and Huffcutt, A. I. (1997) 'Psy_