1.0 Job Design
Job design can defined as work arrangement or re- arrangement focused on overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from mechanistic tasks and repetitive. Organizations try to improve productivity levels by giving non- monetary rewards through job design. Non- monetary rewards such as better satisfaction from a personal achievement in meeting the responsibility of one’s work and increased challenge (Business Dictionary, 2013) It also refers to constitute a particular job position by grouped together with set of activities and tasks. Job design should not be underestimated because of organization’s overall productivity will be affected by the way jobs are structured (Pamela S. Lewis, 2007). 2.0 Various Approaches of Job Design
2.1 Mechanistic Job- Design Approach
This approach is derived from the scientific- management school of thought, work specialization and work simplification. Its main scientific basis is classic industrial engineering.
Diagram 1: indicates the questions might ask to identify whether a job matches the mechanistic approach. Jobs with high mechanistic features the employees training time is usually very short. The reason is mental demands are less, overload and stress unlikely. The disadvantages of this approach are less motivated, less satisfied and higher absenteeism will occur within the organization. In highly repetitive and machine- paced work can lead to health complaints and injuries caused by carelessness and physical wear. For example, low-level factory jobs and unskilled jobs who are working at construction (Michael A. Campion and Paul W. Thayer, 2001).
2.2 Biological Job- Design Approach
This approach stems from the sciences of biomechanics, anthropometry, occupational medicine and work physiology. It is called ergonomics, and its main focus on minimize the biological risks of work and physical costs. Ergonomics is means the science of designing working environments or workstations that match the needs and physical abilities of employees. The goal is to make sure that people’s physical limitations and capabilities are not exceeded by the design of their jobs. This approach has been applied in the redesign of equipment used in higher physically demanding jobs so that employees can perform better. This will result in less physical fatigue, create less complaints of health, cause fewer injuries compare with other jobs, and require less physical effort. For instance, ladders, gloves and other equipment have been improved for the telephone installed job and many of assembly tools have been innovated become smaller to is better for female worker to grasp. In fact, a proper seating design is important for all employees with office jobs because of musculoskeletal health (Michael A. Campion and Paul W. Thayer, 2001). Through this approach employees are more satisfying with their job, but it requires higher financial costs to innovate the equipment in the organization. 2.3 Modern Job-Design Approach
Modern Job-Design has been practicing by organizations nowadays. It can be divided into job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment and job empowerment. Job enlargement can define as a job with increasing the number and variety of tasks. This approach was developing challenges to the workers. The tasks are giving at the same level of responsibility; job enlargement is also known as horizontal job loading. Conversely, job enrichment is known as vertical job loading, an employee add variety task in different area. The results of increasing task can be giving the job holder more discretion, authority, and responsibility for making decision in their present role. Next, job rotation is the planned and systematic rotation of employees in pre-determined jobs so they able to get additional skills or knowledge. It is very useful for developing managers because they need to have fully understanding overall operation in the organization. This...
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