Personnel selection is a process where various methods are used to gather information to determine if individuals meet criteria to fill job vacancies. It is only when an employer achieves many years of service that the impact of personnel selection on an organization can be recognized. This methodical process should be composed with extreme care to avoid any violation of laws that pertain to personnel selection. Validity is evident if an apparent relationship is obvious between the procedure and the job position for which individuals are being selected. An important part of the personnel selection process and as a precursor to selections, job analysis should be performed in such a way as to meet the professional and legal guidelines of the U.S. Federal Agencies' Uniformed Guidelines on Employee Selections (Dessler, 2005), (HR-Guide, 2005), (Wikipedia, 2005).
With modern technology in today's business world, organizations and firms are interested in increasing productivity to maintain adequate levels of competitiveness (AIU Online, 2005). In the human resource administration arena, selecting qualified performers through job analysis techniques can provide with a very successful personnel selection process. But what exactly is job analysis (AIU Online, 2005).
Job analysis is a process used by Human Resource (HR) professionals to describe the nature of a position or a set of positions (Wikipedia, 2005). When properly conducted this process can identify and determine in detail the duties and requirements for a specific job and the type of individual who should be hired for it. Data derived from job analysis have an impact on virtually every aspect of HR management and presumptive judgments are concluding (Dessler, 2005), (HR Guide, 2005).
Job analysis should collect information on duties and tasks, environment, tools and equipment, relationships, and requirements for specific jobs. Furthermore, the following functions are dependent upon the results from a job analysis.
Recruiting and Retention.
Performance appraisal and management.
Safety and health programs.
The different methods to conducting a job analysis are dependent on organizational needs and what resources are available. Questionnaires, observations and interviews are very common methods. Although individual methods are used exclusively, several can be used in combination. In fact, it is recommended that utilizing more than one method is more sensible (How, 1998), (Dessler, 2005). For a HR Manager position, the questionnaire method has been commonly used and interviews are also used for supplementary information. Although the information gathered can be used to analyze other jobs, the questionnaire method appears more suitable because of the management functions required of a HR manager. Furthermore, questionnaires are quick and efficient in obtaining information from large numbers of employees, and are less costly than interviewing hundreds of workers (Dessler, 2005), (How, 1998), (HR Guide, 2005). A structured questionnaire is prepared as a form or checklist and is administered to incumbents to identify performed tasks, and is normally approved by the job holders' superiors. The following is a listing of basic information that should be provided.
The job title of the job holder and his or her superior.
The job titles and number of staff reporting to the job holder.
A brief description of the overall role or purpose of the job.
A list of the main tasks or duties that the job holder must perform. This information can be supplemented by more detailed questions designed to generate more information about the level of responsibilities and demands of the job. The following are examples of this sort information to be covered.
Amount of supervision received and degree of discretion allowed in making decisions.
Problems to solve and amount of guidance available...
References: Dessler, G. (2005). Human Resource Management (Tenth Edition). Pearson Education Company. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
HR Guide to the Internet. Personnel Selection. Methods. Retrieved September 7, 2005, from http://www.hr-guide.com/data/.
Human Resource Tools. Human Resource Essentials. Hiring and Recruitment. Achievement Tests. Retrieved September 7, 2005, from http://www.hrtools.com/HREssentials/P05_1000.asp.
How, T. K. (1998). Basic HR Tool in Job Analysis. Retrieved on October 15, 2005 from http://adtimes.nstp.com.my/jobstory/sep4.htm.
Job-Analysis.Net work. (2005). Job Analysis Internet Guide. Retrieved October 10, 2005, from http://www.job-analysis.net/.
Job Specifications. (2005). Job Specifications Main Page. Retrieved October 15, 2005 from http://www.dscs.state.la.us/ClassPay/Jobspecs/164360.HTM
May, K. E. (2005). Society For Industrial and Organizational Psychology Incorporated. Work in the 21st Century: Implications for Job Analysis. Human Resource Solutions. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from http://www.siop.org/tip/backissues/tipapr96/may.htm.
Salary.com. (2005). Salary Wizard. HR Edition. Retrieved October 15, 2005 from http://hrsalarycenter.salary.com/salarywizard/layoutscripts/.
Wikipedia. (2005). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 15, 2005 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job_analysis.
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