I. What is Job Analysis?
A. “a process used to identify the important tasks of a job and the essential competencies an individual should possess to satisfactorily perform the job.” (State of Colorado, 2002, http://www.colorado.gov/dpa/dhr/select/docs/jobanal.pdf).
B. “a wide variety of systematic procedures for examining, documenting, and drawing inferences about work activities, worker attributes, and work context.” (Sackett & Laczo, 2003, p. 21).
C. methods for learning about the tasks involved in doing a job and/or the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics (KSAOs) that a worker needs to have to do the job (or, to do it well), and the context in which a job is performed.
1. From these definitions, you should see that there are two types of job analysis: job-oriented (aka task-oriented or work-oriented) and person-oriented (worker-oriented).
II. The purposes of job analysis
A. "... job analysis is to the personnel specialist what the wrench is to the plumber." (Cascio, 1982). It is the “cornerstone of nearly all personnel practices.” (Mitchell, Alliger, & Morfopoulos, 1997).
1. In other words, job analysis is used for nearly everything, including…
B. Job Description: A snapshot communicating the essence of the job.
1. Usually contains information such as job title, summary of job purpose or objectives, and duties and tasks that are done on the job.
2. Among other purposes, job descriptions are important for letting people who don’t do the job know what the job is.
C. Job Specification: Identifying the skills or attributes a worker should have to successfully do a job.
D. Job Classification: Identifying what jobs go together somehow.
1. They may go together for a variety of reasons, for example:
(a) Similar tasks carried out.
(b) Similar KSAOs needed.
(c) Similar lines of authority.
2. Job classification can be important for setting pay, hiring employees, moving employees between jobs.
E. Job Evaluation: