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James Madison

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Major Events

During James Madison’s

Presidency

Tatiana Cabello
Social Studies
May 24, 2006
Ms. Espinoza

“The advice nearest to my heart… is that the Union of the States be cherished”(Gaines, 34). This was Madison’s final inspirational message to his countrymen, which clearly depicts how he had devoted his life in keeping the nation strong and united (Gianes, 34). Madison, the fourth president of the United States served as president for two terms. Madison also was president for nine years strait. He was a great leader who believed strongly in freedom for all people to speak their minds (Welsbacher, 24). This essay will highlight the three historical events that occurred during James Madison’s presidential years and how it impacted American history. The first historical event that occurred during Madison’s term of office was the War of 1812. The War was fought between the United States and Britain. During the War, many people opposed Madison and worked against him in many ways (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-4437?query= president %20 james %20 madison&ct=eb). The United States military was poorly trained and had almost no equipment since congress was against spending money. Consequently, Madison became very sick during the war. To make matters worse, the British kept on fighting. After a while, the Americans were starting to win some battles with only 25 ships. Consequently, the British and the French pulled back and made peace. This is one of the historical events that happened during James Madison’s presidency (Kallen, 44-46). Immediately after the peace between Britain and France, the British wanting to punish America for its role in the war, invaded and burned Washington D.C. The problem was that the city had no defense at all! The American soldiers had little to no training; there were no roadblocks and no ammunition. While the British invaded and burned Washington D.C., the Americans escaped. The British stayed in Washington and celebrated their victory for three days then left. Once the British were gone, Madison and the people came back. Madison was extremely angry with the Secretary of War when he returned because when the British came to attack Washington D.C., there was no army to protect Washington since the Federal Government to that date had only limited powers. As a result of the War, the Federal Government gained power at the expense of the States and the society became more industrialized hastening the growth of the cities. This is the second historical event that happened during Madison’s presidency (January, 76). During his presidency, Madison had been facing many problems. When he became president France and Britain were still at war. Both countries were attacking the United States ships to get men and money for their sides. While the war was occurring, the federalists and the republicans were at war with each other, too. The Federalists businessmen made millions on black-market trade with their enemy, Britain. Because Madison was a republican, the federalists accused president Madison on things like name-calling, and would not do as he asked. Many people did not like Madison at the time of these wars. For example, while Madison was trying to figure out what was happening in the war between France and Britain, the federalists continued to accuse him of things. Nevertheless, Madison did not convict them of treason since he strongly believed in freedom of speech. This is the third and final historical event that happened during James Madison’s presidency (Welsbacher, 24-25).

All in all, these mayor historical events that occurred during Madison’s presidency have changed American history. Laws were passed to help keep the United States Army and Navy strong in the event that war was once upon us. In addition, once war ended, it was safe for countries to trade on the seas again. As a result, the United States became prosperous selling goods to other counties. Long after Madison left public office, he remained a popular figure. People remembered that he was president when the nation fought bravely in the War of 1812. Madison nurtured the birth of America throughout his life. In war and in peace, James Madison will always be remembered as a great leader (http://www.americanrevwar.homestead.com/files/MADISON.HTM)

Bibliography

1. Gaines, Ann. James Madison: Our fourth President. United States: The Child’s World Inc. (2002). 2. January, Brendan. James Madison: Encyclopedia of Presidents. Canada: Scholastic Inc. (2003) 3. Kallen, Stuart. James Madison. Edina: ABDO Publishing Company (2001) 4. McGranaham (1998). “The American Revolution, James Madison” from http://www.americanrevwar.homestead.com/files/MADISON.HTM 5. The Lincoln Library of essential information. New York: The Frontier Press Company (1961) 6. Welsbacher, Anne. United States Presidents: James Madison. Edina: ABDO Publishing Company (1999)

Bibliography: 1. Gaines, Ann. James Madison: Our fourth President. United States: The Child’s World Inc. (2002). 2. January, Brendan. James Madison: Encyclopedia of Presidents. Canada: Scholastic Inc. (2003) 3. Kallen, Stuart. James Madison. Edina: ABDO Publishing Company (2001) 4. McGranaham (1998). “The American Revolution, James Madison” from http://www.americanrevwar.homestead.com/files/MADISON.HTM 5. The Lincoln Library of essential information. New York: The Frontier Press Company (1961) 6. Welsbacher, Anne. United States Presidents: James Madison. Edina: ABDO Publishing Company (1999)

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