June 27, 2013
Jails, Prisons and Community based Corrections
In this essay I will attempt to explain and discuss probation and how it compares to other forms of sentencing, the types of prison, the origins of rehabilitation in prisons, parole and how it differs from mandatory release and finally options of community corrections. Ending the essay will be a critique on the current rehabilitation options. The history of probation in the United States started in Boston in 1841.
Starting with probation and how it differs to other forms of sentencing, probation is a prison sentence that is suspended but only on the condition that the offender follows certain rules and that he or she commit no more crimes. Probation is sometimes frowned upon and it is said that probation is being “soft on crime”. Of course sometimes probation is a good alternative to incarceration, not all offenders can be sent to prison. Now with the population in prisons rising we are trying to find other solutions to diminish those numbers. Probation is a good way to do that. Since 1975 the number of offenders being supervised in the communities has gone from 1 million to almost 5.1 million. In 1976 probation started to change drastically due to lack of adequate resources. Therefore a total reevaluation of its practices and operations had to be made, from this came other forms of sentencing.
So as a result of the lack of operations and practices found in earlier years many other forms of probation came into place like intensive probation supervision, house arrest, boot camps, and shock probation. These programs have been developed in order to enhance supervision, increase its effectiveness and finally to limit the offenders freedom. Probation today is a federal, state, and local activity in the United States that is administered by over two thousand separate agencies. Probation is a way that is different
References: Schmalleger, F. (2011). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. http://www.incarceration101.com/types-of-prisons.php#minimum