Isolation of Trimyristin from Nutmeg by Extraction
Extraction is the physical process by which a compound or mixture of compounds is transferred from one phase into another. We will be looking specifically at an organic solvent extraction which is a type of solid-liquid extraction. This type of extraction utilizes an organic solvent that has a high affinity for the compound of interest. Most reactions produce a crude mixture of undesired reagent, byproducts, as well as the desired product. Extraction allows for the separation of a compound from a complex mixture. The different components can be eliminated by their different solubilities. Ultimately, through a simple distillation and filtration process, crystals of the desired product can be achieved.
Table of Reagent:
Specific Safety Precautions for Extraction:
Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of methylene chloride is harmful. This solvent should be used only in well-ventilated areas. Care should be taken to avoid inhaling the vapors of methylene chloride, and to avoid contact with skin. Gloves should be worn while handling this substance. 2.
Methylene chloride should be disposed of in the waste halogenated solvents bottle. 3.
Acetone should be discarded in the waste solvents bottle in the hood.
Data and Observation 1.
Place 5.001 g of ground nutmeg and 50 mL of methylene chloride in a 100 mL round bottom flask.
Attach a water-cooled condenser to the flask and reflux the brown mixture for 30 minutes.
Remove the heat. Allow the flask to cool for a short time.
Filter the warm solution through a fluted filter paper into a 250 mL round bottom flask.
Rinse the solid residue on the filter paper with 5 mL of fresh solvent.
Allow to drain into the 250 mL flask.
Add a few boiling chips to the 250 mL flask. Attach the flask to a simple distillation apparatus.
Heat the liquid in the flask until all the solvent has distilled. (app. 45-50 mL of distillate will be collected)
Cool the liquid residue that remains in the distilling flask in an ice-water bath
Place the residue in an ice water bath until it crystallizes.
Add 10 mL of acetone to the residue in the flask and stir the mixture with a spatula to wash the crystals, and breaking up any lumps that are present.
Vacuum filter the solution.
Place the crystals in a beaker and wash them again with a second 10 mL portion of acetone.
Again, collect the crystals by suction filtration and allow the air to draw through the filter for about 5 minutes to evaporate the last traces of the acetone.
Determine the weight of the product
Determine the melting point of the product.
Calculate the percent yield for the extraction of trimyristin from nutmeg.
1. The nutmeg was in a solid state, having a small grainy consistency.
Methylene chloride was in a liquid state and was clear in color.
The nutmeg and methylene chloride mixture was a dark brown color.
Boiling started after approximately 5 minutes.
A brown solid accumulated on the sides of the flask while boiling the mixture.
A continual drip came down from the tip of the condenser that entered the flask.
A medium yellow liquid drained from the filtered mixture.
A solid dark brown residual remained in the 100 mL flask that the mixture was filtered out of. As the residual dried, it became lighter in color.
The initial temperature was 23.5 °C.
The heating mantle was set to a level of 3.
The solution in the flask began to boil almost immediately upon heating.
The first drop of distillate occurred at a temperature of 32.5 °C. This occurred...
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