Isolation & Identification of the Major Constituent of Clove Oil with Steam Distillation

Topics: Cashew, Distillation, Cashew nutshell liquid Pages: 40 (6123 words) Published: December 19, 2012

Indonesian Journal of Agriculture nut shell liquid ...
Isolation of cardanol from cashew 2(1), 2009: 11-20


Risfaheria), Tun Tedja Irawadi b), M. Anwar Nur b), and Illah Sailah b) a)
Indonesian Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 12 Bogor 16114, Phone: (0251) 8321762, 8350920, Facs.: (0251) 8321762, Email:

Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680

Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is a by-product from cashew nut processing that contains phenolic compounds, mainly cardanol. Cardanol is a monohydroxyl phenol with a long carbon chain in the metaposition. It has the potential as a substitute for phenol in resin phenolic-base chemical products. Research was done to

find out the optimum condition for isolation of cardanol from the CNSL, to identify the characteristics of cardanol, and to estimate the feasibility of cardanol production at a commercial level. The study was carried out in five steps, i.e., (1) analyses of physicochemistry of the CNSL; (2) optimization of CNSL decarboxylation to convert anacardic acid into cardanol; (3) optimization of distillation temperature in cardanol isolation; (4) identification of CNSL distillate using the GC-MS, HPLC, and FTIR; and (5)

estimation of feasibility of cardanol production. The optimum condition for the CNSL decarboxylation was heating at 140°C for 1 hour. Cardanol was obtained from a vacuum distillation process at 4-8 mmHg, and the optimum temperature was achieved at

280°C with 74.22% yield. Characteristics of CNSL distillate met specifications of the technical cardanol. The components of the CNSL distillate were cardanol (3-[8(Z),11(Z),14-pentadecatrienyl]phenol) 74.25%, resol (3-[8(Z),11(Z),14-pentadecadienyl]phenol) 10.94%, and cardol (3-[8(Z),11(Z),14-pentaecienyl]phenol) 14.81%. A cardanol production industry was feasible to be implemented with NPV Rp5,311,121,638, IRR

45.79%, net B/C 2.46, and PBP 2.22 years.
[ Keywords : A nacardium occidentale, cashew nut shell liquid, phenolic compounds]

Potential for cashew nut ( Anacardium occidentale )
production in Indonesia is good. This is indicated by the
annual increase in production of this commodity. In 1999,
the cashew nut production reached 88,658 tons of
unshelled nuts and by the year of 2002 it had increased to


Article in bahasa Indonesia has been published in Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian Vol. 1 No. 1, 2004, p. 1-11.

94,439 tons (BPS 2002). This production will continue
increasing, since the Directorate General of Estate Crops
had implemented programs to enhance extensification and
increase cashew nut production, particularly in eastern
parts of Indonesia. Cashew plant has a superior
characteristic, because it can grow well in areas with
marginal agroecological conditions and dry climates.
Therefore, this crop has been a priority commodity in
eastern parts of Indonesia, such as South-East Sulawesi,
West Nusa Tenggara, and East Nusa Tenggara.
The main product of cashew plant is cashew nuts,
while the secondary products are false fruits and cashew
nut shell liquid (CNSL). Currently, both the false fruit and CNSL have not been exploited optimally, mostly just as
wastes. The potential for CNSL exploitation in Indonesia
is good enough. According to Muljohardjo (1990), the
percentages of cashew nut shells (CNS) in unshelled nuts
ranged from 45% to50% and the CNSL content in the CNS
was about 18-23%. The production of unshelled cashew
nuts in 2002 was 94,439 tons and about 42,498-47,220 tons
of CNS were obtained, hence it contained about 7,65010,861 tons of CNSL. The CNSL production in Indonesia was very low as
compared to its potential, because most of the cashew
nuts were exported in the form of unshelled nuts. Besides,
industries that...

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