IS Zambia is developing in accordance with Dudley Seers

Topics: Economic inequality, Unemployment, Poverty Pages: 9 (3606 words) Published: December 5, 2013
This essay aims to define what development is and to answer the question on whether if Zambia is developing in accordance with Dudley Seers. This will be done in two phases by first defining what development means with the aid of various definitions and dimensions while the second phase to point out on whether Zambia is developing by referring to a reduction in poverty, a reduction in unemployment and a reduction in inequality as key points of reference. The term development is said to be complex due to the many different and sometimes contentious definitions. In some instances development can be said to be a social and economic process of change which leads to a desirable state or outcome which is beneficial to the people of a given society. It is also commonly understood as a complex, gradual, and continuous process that has both qualitative and quantitative aspects. Development must therefore be conceived as “a multidimensional process involving major changes in social structures, popular attitudes, and national institutions, as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality, and the eradication of poverty” (Todaro and Smith, 2003:16). If further broken down it can be highlighted that social structures are patterned social arrangements in society that are determined and emerge from the actions of individuals, while popular attitudes are basically a settled way a mass population thinks or feels which is reflected in their behaviour and national institutions are structures that have a mechanism of social order which are governed by norms, rules of conduct and a general accepted way of doing things. Economic growth can be defined as a sustained increase and expansion in the production capacity of a given economy, while inequality refers to a situation in which individuals or individual groups do not have equal social class, social status and social circle and poverty though which has many definitions can be simply defined as a lack of essential items such as food, clothing, water and shelter. “The concept of development is neither new nor old. Development is a continuously changing and dynamic concept” (Sapru, 1994:4). This basically implies it has and continues to take different shapes and dimensions over a period of time. These dimensions may include social, economic, political, and administrative and so on. According to Colm and Geiger cited by Sapru(1994), “development means change plus growth”. All Colm and Geiger simply meant is that it’s only through economic growth that changes in society will be brought about. According to Amartya Sen cited by Todaro and Smith (2003), “development has to be more concerned with enhancing the lives we lead and the freedoms we enjoy”. In other words the purpose of development is to create an environment in which all people can expand their capabilities, and opportunities can be enlarged for both present and future generations which lead to a life of sustained freedoms. Furthermore Weidner and T. N. Chaturvedi are cited by Sapru (1994), respectively as development being a process of growth “in the direction of modernity and particularly in the direction of nation-building and socio-economic progress” and a process which stands for the “transformation of society”. Elaborating further on Weidner’s definition by growth “in the direction of modernity” it points out to technological advancements and implementing new policies that go hand in hand with the ever evolving world which lead to national building. Socio-economic progress refers to the social life and economic activity that complement each other in the process of development, meaning they both need each other in order to achieve the ultimate goal of development. Development can also be defined in three core values which are life sustenance, self-esteem and freedom of choice (Goulet, 1971). The World Development Report (1991:4), referred to development as “to improve the quality of life. Especially in the...
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