The concept of management is universal and very old. Management is the oldest of arts and the youngest of sciences. It is also a profession. A question is often raised on our mind that whether management is an art, a science, a profession or all the three. This question has been discussed here.
Management as an Art
Art consists of different components like knowledge and skills that are applied to achieve some specific goals. The skills should be practiced regularly by the artist. Management is also consists of different components that are reelected and related to top art. Therefore it is also regarded as an art.
Prof. John F. Mee, "management is the art of securing maximum results with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employee and give the public best possible service."
Marry Porker Follet has defined, "Management as an art of getting things done through other people,”
Management is essentially an art because of the following reasons:
1. Knowledge, skills and creativity of person
2. Applied in practices.
4. Result oriented
5. Improvement through continuous practice.
Management as a Science
Science is a systematic body of knowledge developed by research, experiences, experiments; observation etc. Science is valued and verifiable. Management can also be considered as a science because it also consists of fundamental characters or feature of science.
According to J.M. Keynes,” Science can be defined as a systematized body of knowledge which established the relationship between cause and effect.”
Management developed as art but since the days of F.W. Taylor explains scientific management, it has considered as a science. The advancement of science of manage¬ment has been very fast. Management as a science should be differen¬tiated from the term ‘management science’ - which is used to refer to the