Top-Rated Free Essay

Irrigation Report

Powerful Essays
Topics: Agriculture
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 2 1.1 Background 2 1.2 Objective and Scope of the Sub-project 2 1.3 Approach and Methodology 3 1.4 Methodology Adopted 3 1.5 Sub-project Area 4 1.6 Climate, Topography, and Soil 6 2 TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND DESIGN 8 2.1 Water Resources Assessment 8 2.2 Crop Water Requirements 9 2.3 Engineering System Design 12 3 AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION 14 3.1 Agriculture 14 3.2 Present Agriculture Practices 14 3.3 Present Agriculture Inputs 15 3.4 Future Cropping Pattern and Yields 15 4 SOCIO – INSTITUTION AND ORGANIZATION 16 4.1 Introduction 16 4.2 Beneficiaries Demand for the Sub-Project 17 4.3 Beneficiaries’ ad-hoc management Committee 17 4.4 Level of Cooperation / Enthusiasm among Beneficiaries 17 4.5 Conflict and Management at Beneficiaries level 18 4.6 Needs for Training 18 5 SUB-PROJECT COST AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS 18 5.1 Analysis of Rates 18 5.2 Abstract of Cost 18 5.3 Cost Per Hectare 18 5.4 Estimated Benefits 19 5.5 Financial Analysis 19 6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 19 6.1 Conclusion 19 6.2 Recommendations 20




Context of Present Study
As a follow up action of agricultural development, strategy to increase agricultural production by raising unit yield and expanding higher cropped area from available irrigable area. DOI has initiated various irrigation schemes. DOI also taking loan assistance from various sources so that irrigation facilities can be increased.
The Kurung Khola Non-convention I.P. is one of the projects requested by the user farmers. It lies in Thumpokhara ward no.3 of Syangja district. The proposed command area of this project is under level terraces with medium to intensely cultivated land. The slope of the command area is between 50 to 200 with sufficient soil depth and is suitable for irrigated agriculture. Currently, farmers are growing Early and Main Paddy, wheat, Maize, potato and a little amount of vegetables.
This system has two sources one at the east side and the other at the west side named as Kurung Khol and Kami Khola, but it needs to carry water by pipe line. The local farmers could not build themselves due to economically and technical difficulties despite their genuine need. The user of farmers of this area has been requesting the DIO for a long time for their initiation.
Objective and Scope of the Sub-project
The main objectives of this project is to increase the agricultural yield in net 10 hectares of fertile level terrace land by providing a reliable irrigation facility, as currently the agriculture within this command area is based primarily on rain fed conditions. After the agriculture within this completion of the project the living standard and their livelihood of people living within this command area is expected to increase substantially. After the completion of the system, agriculture yield is expected to increase by introducing improved cropping pattern, crop variety and agricultural extension services.
The development of the project is envisaged with the construction of physical system, improved agricultural practice with intensive agricultural extension services, appropriate O & M practice at the hand of the users themselves and environment friendly utilization of land and water resources.
The project has been selected based on genuine demand of farmers and during this study, peoples participation was very active and encouraging. The user farmers would be mobilized by forming a Water Users Association in order to obtain their contribution during construction as well as the O & M of the system. During this survey, people of the project area were found eager to have a WUA for future course of action. In future, the WUA is expected to generate local resources also to carry effective O & M of the system.
The available water to the project has been determined considering the present usage of water from the same source. The design discharge of the project and the potentially irrigable crop areas has been determined based on this available water.
The physical system has been designed considering the maximum utilization of local materials and manpower, environmental impact issues and compatibility for easier O & M.
Approach and Methodology
The primary approach adopted for conducting the study was to involve the beneficiary farmers in all stages of the project development. The user farmers were consulted during the fieldwork and the discussions were held in connection with the selection of the physical structures including intake and the whole canal systems. After showing the pros and cons for the investigation of water source, our technical team selected the site in such a way that most of the people can get the advantage from this project. Moreover, existing and possible future cropping patterns, institutional development and all the relevant future course of action required for upliftment of livelihood of people were discussed in detail. Based on these discussions and Terms of References provided by the department of Irrigation, the study was carried out by NITP.
Methodology Adopted
In order to carry out the study and arrive into logical conclusion, the survey team adopted the standard research tools for data collection, interpretation and analysis. The methodology also takes into account the Terms and Reference provided by DIO. The methodology adopted for various phases of the study has been presented in following sections.
Sub-project Area
Location and accessibility
The proposed irrigation project is located in ward no. 3 of Khelung Deurali VDC of Syangja district, which is just south west of Putalibazar NP. Geographically, the proposed project area is located in between latitude of 270 58’ 45” N and longitude 830 44’ 30” E. The main road head to access for this project site is named as Sikre Road head at Siddartha Highway which is 10Km all metalled road from Walling Bazar of Syangja district and then about one and half Km of foot trail for walk to the site.
Climate, Topography, and Soil
Ecologically, this project area lies within the Hilly region of Nepal. The proposed command area is almost terrace land with slope ranging between 5 to 20 degrees.
The project area is situated at the altitude of about 800 m. above mean sea level. It has relatively warm temperate climate. It is characterized by very cold winter and warm humid rainy season. The rainy season starts from June and ends in September. During the rainy season, monsoon originating in the Bay of Bengal delivers about 84 percent of the annual rainfall. In the winter season, the north-west wind brings dry cold wind bearing little moisture and accounts for remaining 16% of the total rainfall. The average annual rainfall in and around the project area is 1768 mm. Estimated minimum temperature is around 7.52 0 C. which is in January and mean daily maximum temperature is 29.35 0 C which is in May.
Soil of the command area of this project area consists mainly of humus clay and sandy Dumat clay. The soil depth is estimated to be about 50 cm to 150 cm. So, a wide range of agronomic crops as well as horticulture crops like mango can be grown, if adequate irrigation facility is made available.
Present Socio-Economic Background
Demography and Ethnic Composition
The project area constitutes ward no. 8 of Thumpokhara VDC of Syangja district of Gandaki Zone of the Western Development Region.
There are about 30 households in the project area and the total population inhabiting in the project area is 354 Out of total population, 55 % are male and 45 % are female. The following table shows the ethnic group of this project area.

Ethnic Group: Cast | Households | Population | % Household | Brahmins | 13 | 150 | 43.33 | Kunwar | 10 | 150 | 33.33 | Dalit | 4 | 45 | 13.34 | Newar | 3 | 9 | 10.00 | Total | 30 | 354 | 100 | Living Standard
Primarily occupation of the people in the project area is agriculture and the population’s subsistence is on agriculture products, which is deficit for about three months approximately. The farmers of this project are not only involved in agriculture but also to the business also. Because, most of the beneficiaries live near the highway side and therefore, they are doing to some benefits from the road also. About 25 % of the food grains used to be bought from local market and some farmers grow vegetables and sell them to the nearest market.
Land Holding and Tenancy
All most all of the households in the project area are land owners. There are no pure tenants, who work as a labor force. The average land holdings of this project area are 3 Ropani. The distribution of land among the people in the project area can be generalized in table 1.1 as follows.

Table 11 Land Size and Percentage of Land Holder

S.No. | Land Holding | Farm Size (ha) | % of Land Holder | 1 | Land Less | | None | 2 | Small | < 0.50 | 60 | 3 | Medium | 0.50 – 1.00 | 35 | 4 | Large | 1.00 – 1.50 | 2 | 5 | Very Large | > 1.50 | 1 |

An important sub-component of the farming system of the area is livestock. Farmers use farm manure and the main source of manure is livestock. Due to scarcity of feeds and lack of market for the livestock products, livestock in the area is limited to fulfilling household requirements. Cows are kept in about half of the total numbers of households mainly for the production of calves, manure and to some extent for milk while buffaloes are kept solely for milk. Goat and chicken are kept for meat purpose and to generate cash income. An average distribution of livestock in the project area is summarized in the table 1.2 below.

Table 12 Livestock Distribution

S.No. | Types of Animal | Per household | 1 | Cow | 1 | 2 | Ox | 2 | 3 | Buffaloes | 1 | 4 | Goat | 3 | 5 | Sheep | none |

The main source of local fodder in the project area is grass, straw and tree leaves. Straw is available in most of the households. As for the grass, people take cattle to the grazing land, river banks and the fields having no crops. People also use nearby forest to bring fodder for their cattle.
Economic Activities / Credit Facilities
The project area can be accessed for about 1.5 Kms. of walk from the road head. The command area is also accessible at about half an hour from road head. There are no such places of economic activity in the command area itself. One has to go to the nearest market, that is Walling Bazar, Galyang etc. or near of Siddartha highway for economic activities. The nearest marketing place is at Sikre Bazar, Agriculture Development Bank, other Banks are available in this place for credit facilities.
Labour Availability
Labors like porter, Mason, Blacksmith, general labour etc. are available in the project area. No seasonal labor shortage has been reported so far.
The main objective of irrigation development is to intensify vegetables farming by providing soil moisture needed by the crops. After the development of the sub-project, the existing cropping pattern has to be diversified with the vegetables and Paddy. To achieve this, the extension services together with the inputs are needed to the farmers living in the project area. However, this component is not included in the proposed estimate. It is envisaged that the agricultural agency will launch agricultural program for fulfilling this agricultural objective.
Present Agriculture Practices
The existing agriculture practice within command area is almost traditional. Due to the lack of irrigation facility in most of the proposed command area, crops are dependent on rain only. As a result of this only one crop maize with monsoon paddy are grown and yields are comparatively low in comparison to other irrigated area. However, different types of crops can be successfully grown with in the command area due to favorable topography, soil depth and climate.
Present Agriculture Inputs
Manures and Fertilizers
Organic manures is applied in the field in the form of Farm Yard Manure (FYM). Compost making is not practiced effectively by the farmers. The quantity of manure added is also not adequate to meet the requirement of individual crops. Fertilizers and Farm Yard Manure (FYM) are applied in almost all the command area. Fertilizer in use at present are Urea, DAP.
Agro-Chemical and Seeds
Agro-chemicals in the form of insecticides, pesticides and herbicides are very useful to protect crops from harmful pest, insects and weeds. Most of farmers in this area are not familiar in the usage of herbicides but, farmers spent some amount in pest control on their field. Almost all the seeds of the crops are procured in Syangja.
Extension works and others
Extension works combined with proper input services are of vital importance in increasing farm efficiency and crop production. The farmers at present are not able to enjoy all the facilities of agriculture extension work, because of non-availability of irrigation water. The farmers are reluctant to invest more in fertilizers, manure, agro-chemicals because they are not certain that their investment will produce incremental benefits in the present situation. Institutions like cooperatives, agriculture sub-centers, Banks etc. are not in the command area but in Syangja.
Future Cropping Pattern and Yields
Required Inputs
Agriculture inputs in the form of seed, manure and fertilizers, agro-chemicals are of utmost importance to increase crop production. Beside this, there is a need of providing a well coordinated support services to the farms by integrating those inputs with credit facilities and extension work. It is necessary to make available the inputs to the farmers on a regular basis to increase the production of crops after irrigation.
Cropping Intensities and Yield
The proposed irrigation project seeks to intensify vegetables farming with an application of integrated inputs along with the use of irrigation water. Farmers will be encouraged to use agriculture extension services that are available in the near by Tansen, farmers will be encouraged to practice optimum uses of agriculture inputs in consultation with Agriculture related offices. Table 4.3 lists the estimated future yields of crop together with the inputs.
Table 31 Estimated Yield and Inputs

Crops | Seeds | Fertilizer(kg./Ha.)N:P:K | Organic manureDoko | Yields(kg./ha.) | | Kg/Ha. | Rs./Ha. | | | | Early Paddy | 50 | 1250 | 40:30:30 | 1500 | 2900 | Main Paddy | 50 | 1250 | 40:30:30 | 1500 | 2900 | Wheat | 120 | 3600 | 40:30:30 | 1500 | 10000 | Summer Vegetables | 1000 | 20000 | 60:30:30 | 1500 | 10000 | Potatoes | 1000 | 30000 | 50:30:30 | 1500 | 10000 |

The success of an irrigation project will often depend on various socio-economic factors. The idea behind the active participation and cost sharing by the users in the development of irrigation system is to develop a sense of ownership among users and subsequent efficient operation and maintenance by them so as to make the project sustainable and effective.
At present, the entire command area is suffered by lack of irrigation facilities. As a result the cropping intensity is very low only one crops in a year and yield of that crop is also less than average of the district. Therefore, the living standard of the farmers is low with less economic activities. The production of the crops is not sufficient for fulfilling farmers demand. So the farmers are compelled to buy food grains. To boost up economic status of the farmers cash crops like vegetables farming is proposed.
Beneficiaries Demand for the Sub-Project
The proposed sub-project is a demand driven project. Beneficiaries demanded by formally requesting WIDSD no.3 to help in the construction of this project under non-conventional irrigation system. All most all beneficiaries’ farmers have signed the project request form.
Leading farmer beneficiaries arranged a mass meeting of all the beneficiaries in the proposed command area. In the mass meeting they proposed the idea of seeking help for the proposed project under non-conventional irrigation system. Almost all beneficiaries were made aware about the rules and regulation of present irrigation policy. It was decided in that meeting that the beneficiaries promised for 10 % contribution.
Beneficiaries’ ad-hoc management Committee
Beneficiaries are in the process of forming a Water Users Committee at the near future.. This committee shall be responsible for the construction of proposed project, managing contribution works, collecting application fee, getting application form signed by true beneficiaries, helping WIDD staffs in conducting feasibility, detail studies, frame constitution for the organization..
Persons who are active in social works will be chosen by mass to make a Water Users Committee.

Level of Cooperation / Enthusiasm among Beneficiaries
Beneficiaries’ cooperation was available to survey team in walk – thru of the system, gathering relevant sociological, agricultural, economical and also technical data. From the observation, it can be said that the beneficiaries are willing to contribute their share of contribution for the development of the proposed project. Beneficiaries in the past have contributed in labor and even in cash for the development of irrigation facility. Beneficiaries have shown concern about this project and are waiting impatiently to see that this project is implemented. Beneficiaries are willing to contribute for their share for work in construction and are well aware they have to operate and manage the system after commissioning of the project. Beneficiaries in the command area are willing to contribute their share of work in proportion to their land either in cash or labor or kinds.
Conflict and Management at Beneficiaries level
Beneficiaries in the command area are exposed to working in participatory approach. They have worked together in constructing irrigation system contributing labor as well as cash in the past and is expected to work in future also.. As the beneficiaries are used to working in participatory approach, conflicts that may arise during any stage of implementation of project can easily be solved by the management at the beneficiaries’ level.
Needs for Training
Beneficiaries in the command area though exposed to participatory approach of development activity are not experienced in it. They need strong awareness generating activities from the DIO. Beneficiaries do not have experience in the construction activities, so they need exposures to construction activities. They need training for proper and efficient operation and management of irrigation system. Besides, these technical training, they need training on the management aspect of the irrigation system.

Analysis of Rates
The analysis of rate has been prepared as per the departmentally approved Rate Analysis Norms. All the material and labor rates has been taken as per approved district rates of Syangja district for FY 2068/069. A copy of photocopy of such rates is attached herewith.
Abstract of Cost
Abstract of cost is prepared by compiling quantities of all proposed structures and multiplying the compiled quantities by their analyzed rates. While analyzing rates, VAT and contractor’s overhead cost has been included in the derived rates.
Cost Per Hectare
As per detailed cost analysis, the financial cost per hectare (net command area 10 ha.) has been calculated to be NRs 2,29,670.00 .
Estimated Benefits
The detail description of the project benefits has already been presented in the relevant sections of the agriculture chapter. In brief, the net agricultural benefit before the implementation of the project has been estimated as NRs. 5,68,881.83. After the implementation of the project, the estimated net agricultural benefit is NRs. 14,18,539.65 per annum. Thus, the net incremental benefit after implementation of the project is NRs. 8,49,657.82
Financial Analysis
The financial analysis has been done for a project life of twenty years. The total construction cost has been proposed 40% for the first year and 60% for the next year..
It is assumed that the project benefits will start in the first year of operation. In the first year, net benefit from the project is taken as 40% of the total estimated project benefits. Likewise the 60%, and 90% of the total estimated project benefits has been taken in second, and third years of the project operation respectively. In this way, in fourth year of operation, the project will yield entire estimated benefits.
The operation and maintenance cost has been kept at 3% of the total construction cost for the entire life of the project.
The B/C ratios are 2.27 at 10 percent and 2.00 at 12 percent discount rates.
The Economic Rate of Return (EIRR) of this sub-project is 25.64 percent.

Pond irrigation project is a new project. It lies in the mid hill region of the country. At present only one maize crop and some paddy with a little of winter vegetables are cultivated. With the construction of this project, the proposed command area is expected to be provided with irrigation facility round the year. Consequently, the agriculture yield will be increased substantially and eventually, the living standard of the people living within the command area will be raised.
The user farmers have requested the proposed project by accepting the prevailing rules of mandatory participation during construction and the responsibility of Operation and Maintenance (O & M) after the completion of the project.
The total financial construction cost (with VAT 13% ) of the project has been estimated NRs. 22,96,700.00 and per hectare cost is NRs. 2,29,670.00 which is satisfactory in middle mountain area. The internal rate of return 25.64 percent.
The need for implementing this project is adequately reflected here and the benefits arising is also considerable. The project is technically viable and can be implemented with the available know-how. In view of the above points and the location of the project, this project is recommended for implementation under non-conventional irrigation system.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays


    • 837 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Irrigation:- a system of supplying (land) with water by means of artificial canals, ditches, etc, esp to promote the growth of food crops ⇒ a sophisticated irrigation system Importance of irrigation:- Irrigation means the artificial way of watering the crops. Irrigation is very important for Pakistan.We have little rainfall therefore we get the help of irrigation in preparing our crops. The progress of our country depends upon the means of irrigation and their progress. All parts except northern…

    • 837 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Irrigation System

    • 647 Words
    • 3 Pages

    A Study Comparing the Impacts of Surface Irrigation and Localized Irrigation (Drip Irrigation) Here in the Philippines basing on the studies conducted by, agriculture has been considered as the primary sector of the economy. It has contributed 19.1 % of the Gross Domestic Product and has provided employment for about 36.7% of the labor force. It is also a factor that primarily affects the economic well-being of the country like in determining the employment rate, total food supply available…

    • 647 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Irrigation System

    • 342 Words
    • 2 Pages

    1.7 Conceptual Framework Existing Theories & Factors That Affects Irrigation Systems Humidity, Moisture & Climate Change Automated Irrigation System Microcontroller Using Soil Moisture and Soil Moisture Sensor Humidity Sensor Humidity Sensor Development Tools Existing Studies Design Improve Production CHAPTER 2 REVIEW…

    • 342 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Agriculture - Irrigation

    • 1596 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Agricultural Mechanization Strategies and programmes have been directed towards replacement of traditional and inefficient implements by improved ones, enabling the farmers to own tractors, power tillers, harvesters and other machines, availability of custom hire services, support services of human resource development, testing, evaluation and research & development. A huge industrial base for manufacturing of the agricultural machines has also been developed. Introduction of technologically…

    • 1596 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Irrigation and it's Methods Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is the replacement of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. Several methods of irrigation are used today depending on the water availability and the type of crop to be irrigated. Some of these methods are: 1) Flood irrigation: In flood irrigation, a large amount of water is brought to the field and flows on the ground among the crops…

    • 533 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Methods of Irrigation

    • 5479 Words
    • 22 Pages

    METHODS OF IRRIGATION The manner in which water is applied to the land is commonly referred to as method of irrigation. These methods are adopted to apply irrigation water to the crop depending on the landscape, amount of water and equipment available, the crop and method of cultivation of crop. The main aim of these methods is to store water in the effective root zone uniformly and in maximum quantity ensuring minimum water loss and to get optimum yield. Various methods of irrigation are: 1. Surface…

    • 5479 Words
    • 22 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Irrigation and Tank

    • 339 Words
    • 2 Pages

    CIRCUIT IDEAS SIMPLE AUTOMATIC WATER-LEVEL CONTROLLER SUNIL KUMAR IVEDI S.C. DW W ater-level controllers are common nowadays. The one described here is minal Vcc is at the bottom of the tank, sensor terminal L is just above the bottom of the tank and sensor terminal H is at the top of the tank. After you have properly installed the sen- Fig. 1: Simple water level controller built around timer NE555 and inverter buffer CMOS IC CD4049. It uses readily-available, low-cost components…

    • 339 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Urinary Catheter Irrigation.

    • 4179 Words
    • 17 Pages

    Meet the Client: Clyde Hunter Clyde Hunter, a 72-year-old African-American male, is a resident of a long-term care facility. He has been unable to control the urge to void since experiencing a stroke, formerly called cerebrovascular accident (CVA), 1 month ago. The term brain attack is also used to describe a stroke. Instructions: While taking this case study, all questions must be answered correctly before you will be able to proceed to the next page. For all incorrect answers, select a new…

    • 4179 Words
    • 17 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Greywater Irrigation Effect

    • 3198 Words
    • 13 Pages

    Effect of Greywater Irrigation on Soil Hydraulic Properties Henry Hartono Gunawan 1 INTRODUCTION The use of Greywater for landscaping irrigations is becoming common as Western Australia is experiencing the water restriction due to the current drought condition and critically low level surface water storage. Hence, the reuse of Greywater can utilise the on-site resource, conserve the water efficiently, and reduce the load on wastewater disposal system. As there is still lack of information…

    • 3198 Words
    • 13 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Messopotamian Irrigation Systems By isa Have you ever wondered what the world would be like without irrigation systems? Without the ancient Mesopotamians we may not have had irrigation systems today. Mesopotamia was among the first civilizations to build a irrigation system. Mesopotamians had a very sophisticated irrigation system. They started by digging out a wide trench for the water to flow through. The next step was to build smaller ditches to their crops. Then they built walls to control…

    • 408 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays