iraq iran war of 1980 - major facts

Topics: Iraq, Saddam Hussein, Iran Pages: 8 (870 words) Published: December 5, 2013
Key Dates

Context - Iraq








13 Millions inhabitants



Saddam Hussein is still contested in his own parti by Al Bakr supporters and with Islamic revolution in Iran, Shiis start a revolt in 1979.



1st military power in the region.

Arabs = 75%, Kurds = 17%, Persian 2%.
⅔ Sunni, ⅓ Shii and 3% of minority (christians, jews,...) Economic dependency on oil. Others sectors were developping. Baasist regim since 1968 and the second “coup d’état” (1st in 1963). July 1979, Saddam Hussein finally take supreme power after the ‘elimination’ of his cousin Hassan Al Bakr, former Iraq president.

Context - Iran






35 Million inhabitants





Islamic regim after the 1979 revolution

Persian = 61 %, Azeris = 16%, Kurds = 10, Arab = 2%
90% Shii, 9% Sunni, 1% non muslim (Christians, jew, Zoroastrians). Economic dependency to oil (79% of government revenues). Others sectors are badly developped.

But still contested.
Weakness of military forces due to purges of new regims.

Religious differences - Sunni / Shii



Had split in 661 after the assassination of Ali, the 4th Caliph and especially the nephew and son in law of Muhamad as the first one who have convert himself to Islam.



Political differences at start. Shii thinks the Caliph should be a descendant of Ali and so Muhamad to have the prophete blood. Sunni gives the caliphate to the best muslim.



Religion practice also differs. For Shii, they think Caliphs and Imams can interpret the coran. For Sunni, interpretation.are not really accepted. There is also the 7 revealed / 7 hidden imman theory in Shiism.



Today : 90% of Muslim are Sunni. In the 10th Century, 50% and the two main caliphate were ruled by Shii.



Arabs / Persians

Economic and Political stakes (Iraqi
motivations)
Shatt al Arab => first reason of the conflict
Geostrategic Waterway close to the Persian gulf.
- Use to be Iraqi
- Since the Alger agreements (1975) the two
countries share the area
Iraqi wants to get
back Shatt al Arab.
The Saddam Hussein governmant (BAAS) is a
lay party:
Stop the Islamic expansion in the region.

Factors leading to the War





Iraqui political and economical motivations
Iran is weakened because of the Islamic revolution
Saddam feels invincible (30 days of war maximum)
Ayatollah Rouhollah khomeini, Islamic revolution leader
has bad relationship with Saddam Hussein



Saddam Hussein thinks that he has support within Iran
(Socialist and non-revolutionary partisants)



Saddam Hussein thinks that he has gulf’s countries support

Iranian Stakes for winning the war
After having won 1% of the Iranian territory, Saddam strengthened his trust in winning the war and proposed a ceasefire. Iran would accept it under 4 conditions: 1.
2.
3.
4.

Saddam Hussein must admit his responsability in the war onset Saddam Hussein must leave the Iraqi power
Iraq provides compensations to Iran for war damage
Iraq must organize an auto-determination referendum for the chiite population

Motivations:
Overthrow of the BAAS party
Unification and spread of the Islamic League
Oust the socialist and laymen
Affirm the role of the Clergy

A conflict appears within the Iranian Clergy: Power race

The Alliances



Iran

URSS changed its strategy
access to hot
seas
+ Lybia + Israel + Syria
Why Israel?
“enemies of your enemies are your friends” arab
proverb
- Irak is the biggest danger for Israel (At that time)
- Negotiate repatriation of Jewish in Iran
- Important weapon contracts
- Nuclear danger of Iraq (at that time)






Iraq
Koweit
ex part of Iraq divided by
England (strategy to divide the petrol in
the region)
+ Jordania + Saoudi Arabia
France
El dorado for French industries
+ 2nd weapon supplier (Dassault)
But went out quickly

Complicated role of US in the conflict: Support both parts
- Against Sadam Hussein
- Direct...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay about The Iran-Iraq War
  • Overview of the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988 Essay
  • Iraq War Essay
  • Iran-Iraq War Essay
  • The Iran-Iraq War Research Paper
  • iran iraq war causes and consequences Essay
  • Iran-Iraq Research Paper
  • The Iran Iraq War Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free