Ionic Bond and Sodium Peroxide

Topics: Ionic bond, Oxygen, Oxide Pages: 7 (1733 words) Published: October 17, 2013
Formula of oxide
Na2O2
MgO
Al2O3
SiO2
P4O10
Cl2O
Melting Point
(C)
460
2825
2072
1700
340
-120.6
Boiling Point
(C)
657
3600
2977
2230
360
2.2
State at STP
Solid
Solid
Solid
Solid
Solid
Liquid
Action of water
Dissolve in water and form alkaline solution
Slightly dissolve in water and form alkaline solution
Insoluble in water
Insoluble in water
Dissolve in water and form acidic solution
Dissolve in water and form acidic solution
pH of aqueous solution
14
9
7
7
1
3
Acid-base nature
Basic
Basic
Amphoteric
Acidic
Acidic
Acidic
Conductivity of liquid
Conductor
Conductor
Conductor
Insulator
Insulator
Insulator
Solubility in hexane
Insoluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Soluble
Soluble
Soluble
Structure
Giant ionic structure
Giant ionic structure
Ionic with covalent character
Giant covalent structure
Simple molecular structure
Simple molecular structure
Bonding
Ionic bonding
Ionic bonding
Ionic bonding
Covalent bonding
Covalent bonding
Covalent bonding

Boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the external pressure on the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. Melting point is the temperature at which the lattice is collapses and the solid is converted into liquid. The trend in structure is from the metallic oxides containing giant structures of ions on the left of the period via a giant covalent oxide in the middle to molecular oxides on the right. Sodium peroxide, magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide are metallic oxide which have high melting and boiling point compared to other period 3 oxide. This is due to their giant ionic structure and the strong ionic bond. Strong ionic bond in the molecule need more energy to overcome it. Therefore, the more energy required, the higher the melting and boiling point. Aluminum oxide will have higher melting and boiling point than magnesium oxide because Al3+ ions having high charge density than Mg2+, which enable it to polarize the electron cloud of O2- to give it a high degree of covalent structure in ionic bond. Silicon (IV) oxide has higher melting and boiling point compared to phosphorus (V) oxide and chlorine (I) oxide due to the strong covalent bond and the giant covalent structure. More energy is needed to break the strong covalent bond and in turns result the high melting point of silicon oxide. The trend of period 3 oxide is fluctuate across the period 3 and the degree of melting and boiling point is MgO > Al2O3 > SiO2 > Na2O2 > P4O10 > Cl2O .

Besides, there are different actions of water of period 3 oxide. Sodium peroxide is soluble in water. When sodium peroxide is put into water, it will dissolve in the water and form an alkaline solution. This reaction increase the temperature of the solution, therefore it is an exothermic reaction. The chemical equation for this reaction is Na2O2 + 2H2O  2NaOH + H2O2 .

Magnesium oxide is partially soluble in water. When it is put into water, it will slightly dissolve in the water and form a basic solution which the pH is around 9. This reaction increase the temperature of the solution, therefore it is an exothermic reaction. The chemical equation for this reaction is MgO + H2O  Mg(OH)2 .

Aluminum oxide and silicon(IV) oxide will not react with water because they are insoluble in water. Aluminum oxide is an ionic compound with covalent properties giving rise to a strong intermediate force. Strong intermediate force and the high charge density of aluminum ions give rise to high lattice energy of a compound. The higher the lattice energy, the higher the amount of energy required to break the ionic bond, thus the lower the solubility in water. Silicon (IV) oxide cannot dissolve in water because of its giant covalent structure and the strong covalent bond which is difficult to break down. Even though they are insoluble in water, but when they are added into the water, heat...
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