Introduction to Textile Industry in India

Topics: Silk, Cotton, India Pages: 13 (3351 words) Published: March 13, 2014
 Chapter 1
An Overview of Textile Industry

1.1 Historical Perspective
The term 'Textile' is a Latin word originated from the word 'texere' which means 'to weave'. Textile refers to a flexible material comprising of a network of natural or artificial fibers, known as yarn. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting and pressing fibers together. History of Textile The history of textile is almost as old as that of human civilization and as time moves on the history of textile has further enriched itself. In the 6th and 7th century BC, the oldest recorded indication of using fiber comes with the invention of flax and wool fabric at the excavation of Swiss lake inhabitants. In India the culture of silk was introduced in 400AD, while spinning of cotton traces back to 3000BC. In China, the discovery and consequent development of sericulture and spin silk methods got initiated at 2640 BC while in Egypt the art of spinning linen and weaving developed in 3400 BC. The discovery of machines and their widespread application in processing natural fibers was a direct outcome of the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries. The discoveries of various synthetic fibers like nylon created a wider market for textile products and gradually led to the invention of new and improved sources of natural fiber. The development of transportation and communication facilities facilitated the path of transaction of localized skills and textile art among various countries. Textile History of Various Countries:

India
Indian textile enjoys a rich heritage and the origin of textiles in India traces back to the Indus valley Civilization where people used homespun cotton for weaving their clothes. Rigveda, the earliest of the Veda contains the literary information about textiles and it refers to weaving. Ramayana and Mahabharata, the eminent Indian epics depict the existence of wide variety of fabrics in ancient India. These epics refer both to rich and stylized garment worn by the aristocrats and ordinary simple clothes worn by the common people. The contemporary Indian textile not only reflects the splendid past but also cater to the requirements of the modern times. The archaeological surveys and studies have found that the people of Harappan civilization knew weaving and the spinning of cotton four thousand years ago. Reference to weaving and spinning materials is found in the Vedic Literature also. There was textile trade in India during the early centuries. A block printed and resist-dyed fabrics, whose origin is from Gujarat is found in tombs of Fostat, Egypt. This proves that Indian export of cotton textiles to the Egypt or the Nile Civilization in medieval times were to a large extent. Large quantity of north Indian silk was traded through the silk route in China to the western countries. The Indian silk was often exchanged with the western countries for their spices in the barter system. During the late 17th and 18th century there were large export of the Indian cotton to the western countries to meet the need of the European industries during industrial revolution. Consequently there was development of nationalist movement like the famous Swadeshi movement which was headed by the Aurobindo Ghosh. There was also export of Indian silk, Muslin cloth of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to other countries by the East Indian Company. Bhilwara is known as textile city. Japan

In 1869 the capital of Japan was shifted from Kyoto to Tokyo and from this time onwards the Nishijin weaving tradition seemed threatened with extinction. The industry again started to grow along with Japan's new capitalist economy by 1890 when the Nishijin weavers embraced and applied modern technology to their own ancient and original textile art. The textile art of Japan particularly reached an epitome of excellence by exhibiting a cultural distinction and remarkable artistic skill in...
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