Introduction to Special Education 1
IDEA- INDIVIDUALIZED WITH DISABILITY EDUCATION ACT
FAPE- FREE AND APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION
IEP- IDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM/PLAN
IFSP- INDIVIDUALIZED FAMILY SERVICE/PLAN
LRE- LEAST RESTRICTED ENVIRONMENT
Q: What is Learning Disability or LD?
A: Retardation, disorder, or delayed development in one or more processes of speech, language, reading, writing, arithmetic or other school subjects. On the other hand, it also refers to a heterogeneous group of disorder manifested by significant difficulties.
Perception and motor skills
Behavior and affective
Memory and thinking
Causes of Learning Disability:
AMBIDEXTROUS- use of both hands to write
Brain Damage Model
Organic and Biological Model
Environmental and Ecological Model
Classification of Learning Disability:
Dyslexia- is an impairment in the brains ability to translate written images received the eyes into meaningful language. Also called specific reading disability. However there are three types of dyslexia i.e., visual (difficulty processing auditory stimuli), auditory and Visio-auditory. is a learning disability that interferes with reading and writing, because letters seem to float across a page, reverse or otherwise become difficult to read, children with dyslexia display reading difficulties despite normal or near normal intelligence and adequate opportunities’ to learn to read. Dyscalculia- is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, and learning math facts. It is generally seen as specific developmental disorder like dyslexia. Dysgraphia- is a deficiency in the ability to write, primarily in terms of handwriting, but also in terms of coherence.
Q: What is Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder or AD/HD? A: is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity).
Facts about AD/HD
AD/HD is not a conduct disorder
AD/HD is not caused by bad parenting or poor teaching
Children who have AD/HD may have other problems such as poor conduct, anxiety, depression and leaving problem AD/HD can cause poor study habits, testing skills and school performance Worse case about AD/HD is taking up a medicine
Causes of AD/HD:
Academic impact on AD/HD:
Attention, impulse control and motor control are academic skills that are vital to school access Does not interfere with the ability to learn per se
ADHD is an educational performance problem not an IQ problem that even leads to academic underachievement
Age 7 (self-esteem)
Age 11 (disruptive behavior, learning delay, poor social skills) Age 13 to adult (ODD, challenging behavior, criminal behavior, school exclusion and substance abuse) AD/HD Children may encounter difficulty with:
Speech and Language
Temperamental mismatch between the student and teacher
Inappropriate expectations from the student
Types of AD/HD:
AD/HD Predominantly Inattentive Type- Children with AD/HD who have little or no trouble sitting still or inhabiting behavior but may be predominantly inattentive and have great difficulty getting or staying focused on task or activity. AD/HD Predominantly Hyperactive- Impulsive Type- Children who may be able to pay attention to tasks but lose focus because they may be pre-dominantly hyperactive-impulsive thus having trouble...
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