introduction to psychology

Topics: Psychology, Sigmund Freud, Brain Pages: 9 (2344 words) Published: February 18, 2014



The following paper consists of an explanation, of what the history of psychology taught us about the human behaviour. This explanation consists of summarising the different perspectives in psychology. Each perspective is trying to view the human mind and behaviour from a different angle, i.e. the biological perspective tries to analyse the human behaviour by understanding the biological and physical structure of the brain and the nervous system, whereas the psychodynamic perspective focuses on, how the behaviour changes according to our infant and child experiences. The different perspectives are shown below with the following order: a) Psychodynamic b) Humanistic c) Cognitive d) Behaviourist e) Biological f) Abnormal Behaviour g) Developmental h) Social Behaviour. Each and every perspective is unique and does not have explanatory power over the other perspectives. By mentioning all the different perspectives in psychology we end up to a conclusion that by understanding them all and explain their target points we can create effective solutions for arisen problems of human behaviour. The fact that there are many different perspectives, it is clearly visible the complexity and the richness of human mind.



What has the history of Psychology told us about understanding the human behaviour? For several centuries now, there are many different aspects on the field of psychology. Even in ancient Greece and ancient Egypt we see many philosophers like Plato and Aristotle to be involved and exploring the human behaviour. Before psychology was established as a science, people believed that the human behaviour is influenced by the stars and therefore Astrology became a source of belief.

In order to understand different situations and behaviours psychologists invented the perspectives in psychology. Every perspective has been established by the efforts of scientists to prove theories, dissidences or even mistakes that other people made. Psychology has been established as a science in the end of 19th century when many approaches had been analysed. Every approach had its own theory on people and how they react in every particular situation. Such approaches are that biology plays also a very important role in human’s behaviour. Freud analyses through his psychodynamic approach the importance of childhood and how that affects the character of an adult. The humanistic approach has been developed in the middle of the 20th century as a response to B.F Skinner (behaviourist approach) and Sigmund Freud (Psychodynamic Approach). Psychology even nowadays occupies scientists, who make researches that can last for years or decades until it is proven correct or not. With the aid of technology though, many difficulties have been overcome and it is easier to accomplish a research. It is essential though, that everyone uses earlier researches as a background and like Isaac Newton said “ If psychologists today seem to see further than they did , it is partly because they are standing on the shoulders of a giant.”



We all know about Sigmund Freud and his theories of psychoanalysis, subconscious, repression and denial are the few of them. Freud believes that the childhood experiences are these which determine our behaviour as adults. He believed that our behaviour is determined by the unconscious and childhood experiences and so people have a little free will and choices.

Psychodynamic theory inspired many psychologists to develop their own theory on that field, having as standard Freud’s psychoanalysis which is both a therapy and a theory. Freud also explained that only a part of the human brain is visible, which is observable behaviour, but the most significant influence on a human’s behaviour is due to the unconscious. Freud also used three main methods of accessing the...

References: Learning Matters (2003). Introductory Psychology: History, themes
and perspectives. Crucial Study Texts for Psychology Degree
Courses. Exeter: Barker, M. ISBN-10: 1903337178
The McGraw-Hill companies (2013). Approaches to Psychology (6th Ed) Glassman, W.E. &
Hadad. M. ISBN: 0077140060
Blackwell Hewstone (2005). Psychology. M. Fincham, F.D. & Foster, J.
ISBN-10: 0631206787
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