UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
PRESENTED BY: NJUE ANGELINE WANJA
PRESENTED TO: PROFESSOR GATUMU
1. MAKE A DISTINCTION BETWEEN NATURE AND NURTURE
Nature is the inherent character or basic constitution of a person or thing while nurture is the sum of the environmental factors influencing the behavior and traits expressed by an organism.
2.IDENTIFY THE RECOGNISED EFFECTS OF NATURE AND NURTURE ON BEHAVIOUR AND DISCUSS THE MAJOR ISSUE CONCERNING THIS INFLUENCE.DO BEHAVIOURS THAT PROMOTED SURVIVAL IN EARLY EVOLUTION OF HUMANBEINGS STILL INFLUENCE THE WAY PEOPLE BEHAVE TODAY?DISCUSS Nature plays a role in determining personality. These personality traits help determine the paths people take in their environment (nurture), which in turn effects their specific behaviours. Behaviours that promoted survival in early evolution still influence the way people behave today. Evolutionary psychologists believe that evolutionary processes designed our mind for life in an environment. They say that the human brain consists of specialized neural circuits designed by evolution to unconsciously solve problems that our ancestors faced during our evolutionary history. 3EXPLAIN HOW TWINS DEVELOP AND WHY TWIN STUDIES ARE IMPORTANT TO PSYCHOLOGISTS. CAN BEHAVIOUR TRAITS SUCH AS SHYNESS AND AGGRESSIVENESS BE INHERITED? DISCUSS The scientific study of twins began in the 1870’s. Twins provide a natural control for experiments because respect for each twin’s feelings, privacy and personhood is easy for even the best intentioned scientist to compromise. Behaviour traits such as shyness and aggressiveness cannot be inherited. This is because they are not genetical
4. DEFINE THE TERM LEARNING AND EXPLAIN HOW PSYCHOLOGISTS DETERMINE WHEN LEARNING HAS OCCURRED. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge as a result of experience or practice. It comes about due to the combination of these factors: change in behavior, change in knowledge, results of experience and permanency. Learning is said to have occurred by observation of the behavior before and after learning. Once something is learned, an organism can exhibit a behavior that indicates learning has occurred. 5. DEFINE CONDITIONING AND EXPLAIN HOW CLASSICALLY CONDITIONED RESPONSES ARE LIKE AND UNLIKE REFLEXES (HINT: AUTOMATIC, LEARNED AND NOT LEARNED) Conditioning is the acquisition of behavior in the presence of a well defined stimulus. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a reflexive response that was originally evoked by a different stimulus. 6 .DESCRIBE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND DEFINE THE VARIOUS TYPES OF STIMULI AND RESPONSES INVOLVED. Classical conditioning is the acquisition of behavior in the presence of well defined stimuli. a) Unconditioned stimulus – a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without any prior conditioning example food b) Unconditioned response – an unlearned reaction/response to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without prior conditioning example salivating c) Conditioned stimulus – an originally neutral stimulus that now elicits a conditioned response example ringing the bell d) Conditioned response – behavior that the animal has learnt in response to conditioned stimulus. 7. DESCRIBE HOW EXTINCTION AND SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY AFFECT CLASSICALY CONDITIONED RESPONSES. Extinction is the result of eliminating the unconditioned stimulus and repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus alone. Eventually the conditioned stimulus will no longer elicit the conditioned response. If the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are again paired after the conditioned response has been extinguished, the conditioned response returns to its original strength very quickly. An extinguished conditioned response will temporarily reappear if after some time delay, the conditioned stimulus occurs without...
References: 1. Myers D.G (2008) Psychology 9th edition New York: Worth publishers
2. Wayne Weiten (2000) Psychology Themes and Variations 7th Edition
4. Woolfolk A (2004) 9th edition Educational psychology Boston pearson education inc
5. Rita L.Atikinson (1987) Introduction to psychology 9th edition
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