Introduction to Geography and Economic Geography

Topics: Cardinal direction, Geography Pages: 30 (1177 words) Published: August 20, 2015

Origin of the Discipline

Three Fundamental Questions


Two Dimensioned Researches

System of Geography

Four Schools of Research

Origin of the Discipline

Geography (English)

was first coined by Eratosthenes (270 – 192
B.C), a Greek scientist/geographer, chief
librarian of the Alexanria Library

Geō = Earth
Graphia = Description

Concept of Geography

The studies of the phenomena,
processes and patterns of natural
environment and the spatial
organization of human life as a

3 Fundamental Questions

Where?: Where did/are the phenomenon, processes,
patterns happened/happening?


Why there?: Why did/are they happened/happening
there? (not at a different/other place?)


How?: How are they in the relationships to those at
other places, and affect or are affected by human life
and natural environment?
 spatial/geographical thinking

Oaktree Ecosystem

Ecosystem diversity

To answer those questions, we:

Focus in spatial and system analytical

Using concepts, terms, and methods in

Understand things are rationally organized on
earth’s surface

Spatial patterns  understanding how people
live on and shape the earth’s surface

Two Dimensioned Studies

Spatial phenomena: Studies of phenomenon and process of
natural environment, and the spatial patterns which societies organize their activities.


Spatial interaction: Studies of the interactions and relationships between societies and natural environment which create the
unity, diversity and openness of physical and cultural
landscape in the earth.

System of Geography

Basic Geographic





Size and Scale



Spatial Interaction and Analysis


‘Spatial’ always carries the ideas of the ways things are distributed, the movement occur, and the processes operate
over the whole or a part of the surface of the earth.

Space  ‘Spatial’  forming the concepts:

Geography  spatial science

Places on earth’s surface  spatial behavior of people
 spatial relationship

Behavior + relationship maintained  spatial process


Absolute Location


Relative Location

1. Absolute Location

being unique to each described place

measuring the distance separating places

finding directions between places on the earth’s surface.

One of systems (also called mathematic location): a
positioning system of precise and accepted identification of a place accurately described by reference to its degrees,
minutes and seconds of latitude and longitude.
 Ex:

Vietnam is located at, latitude: 8010’ to 23024’ N

longitude:1020 O9’ to 109030’ E

Other precise and accepted system: survey system on regional level.

Depends any other characteristics, it has:

Legal description of place,

Measuring the distance separating places,

Finding directions between places on the earth’s surface.


Vietnam University: the 6th site, Linh Trung ward, Thu Duc district, HCMC

HCMC International University:

University of Oxford: University Offices, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD UK

Stanford University: 630 Serra Street, Suite 120, Stanford, CA 94305-6032 723-4291 USA

2. Relative Location

the position of a place in relation to that of other places or activities

It explains spatial interconnection and interdependence

Ex: location of library, cafeteria … to your classroom

In other sense, it tells us that people, things, and places exit in the world physical and cultural characteristics that differ from place to place

Ex: Vietnam is located in the southeastern extremity of the...
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