Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology
Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology
Having culture as a field of psychology makes sense because culture plays a significant role in everyday life. Culture allows someone to define who they are how they survive. Expressions of who one is can be done in many ways, by behavior, appearance, and language. Without culture, one’s human nature would rely on instinct to remain alive. Culture is a product of one’s environment. How important culture is and how culture influences oneself and others will be discussed in this paper. Examining various types of relationships as it pertains to culture and cross cultural psychology will also be deliberated. Critical thinking and the role it plays in cross cultural psychology and the use of scientific method will also be covered. Definition of Cultural and Cross-Cultural Psychology There are many avenues when looking at what culture stands for, but for most there is an agreement that culture is passed down from one generation to the next, there is a strong influence of molding one’s behavior, and that culture is learned. One’s environment is based on the culture that he or she is subjected to. Culture influences humans in many ways that is what makes humans human. Culture separates individuals from any other species and affords one the opportunity to use instinct and cultural knowledge to survive. Culture is woven into one’s fabric of daily life, and aids in how one interacts with others. By definition psychology is the study of performance and human behavior, so when tying to define one’s actions, it is imperative that incorporating one’s culture into the equation. The behaviors of a person can be directly related to the environment or various biological factors, but, behavior can not be solely answered by just those two things without examining the social cultural conditions which impact that person’s behavior. Cultural psychology looks for the connection between psychology and one’s culture. By looking at this link the correlation between culture and behavior is recognized. Acknowledging this permits that cognitive operations are the variable in culture and oneself based on the environment that he or she is surrounded by (Segal, Dasen, Berry & Poortinga, 1999). Culture can bring people together as well as separate others. Cross-cultural psychology is a newer specialty in the field. This field does not just focus on one specific culture when attempting to clarify the actions of someone’s behavior. Rather it views many different cultures that could be affected a person. It is imperative to know not to confuse race, ethnicity and society with culture. They do offer a look at a person’s individualism but it is different than one’s culture. A society consists of people where a culture is a common interest shared by persons with in a group that lead to a given behavior. To understand human behavior, viewing other approaches like sociological, cultural mixtures, integrative approach, eco-cultural and evolutionary all help in understanding how a human’s behavior could fluctuate based on. For example, when looking at the evolutionary approach views the biological factors contributing to the behavior over the eco-cultural approach views the environment (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). The Relationship between Cultural and Cross-Cultural Psychology
There are two different disciplines, anthropology and philosophy, that overlap in cultural psychology. Then reviewing other disciplines there is a wider viewpoint when researching various actions that others do. The purpose of cultural psychology is to unearth how someone’s culture affects behavior as well as how the connection is generated. Human energy cannot be the only factory determining one’s predisposition. Cultural psychology interprets that one’s mind...
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