Decision support system
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It has been suggested that decision-making software be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2014.
Example of a Decision Support System for John Day Reservoir. A Decision Support System (DSS) is a computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs serve the management, operations, and planning levels of an organization (usually mid and higher management) and help to make decisions, which may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance (Unstructured and Semi-Structured decision problems). Decision support systems can be either fully computerized, human or a combination of both. While academics have perceived DSS as a tool to support decision making process, DSS users see DSS as a tool to facilitate organizational processes. Some authors have extended the definition of DSS to include any system that might support decision making. Sprague (1980) defines DSS by its characteristics: 1. DSS tends to be aimed at the less well structured, underspecified problem that upper level managers typically face; 2. DSS attempts to combine the use of models or analytic techniques with traditional data access and retrieval functions; 3. DSS specifically focuses on features which make them easy to use by noncomputer people in an interactive mode; and 4. DSS emphasizes flexibility and adaptability to accommodate changes in the environment and the decision making approach of the user. DSSs include knowledge-based systems. A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from a combination of raw data, documents, and personal knowledge, or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions. Typical information that a decision support application might gather and present includes: inventories of information assets (including legacy and relational data sources, cubes, data warehouses, and data marts), comparative sales figures between one period and the next,
projected revenue figures based on product sales assumptions. Contents
4 Development frameworks
9 See also
11 Further reading
The concept of decision support has evolved from two main areas of research: The theoretical studies of organizational decision making done at the Carnegie Institute of Technology during the late 1950s and early 1960s, and the technical work on Technology in the 1960s. DSS became an area of research of its own in the middle of the 1970s, before gaining in intensity during the 1980s. In the middle and late 1980s, executive information systems (EIS), group decision support systems (GDSS), and organizational decision support systems (ODSS) evolved from the single user and model-oriented DSS. According to Sol (1987) the definition and scope of DSS has been migrating over the years. In the 1970s DSS was described as "a computer-based system to aid decision making". In the late 1970s the DSS movement started focusing on "interactive computer-based systems which help decision-makers utilize data bases and models to solve ill-structured problems". In the 1980s DSS should provide systems "using suitable and available technology to improve effectiveness of managerial and professional activities", and towards the end of 1980s DSS faced a new challenge towards the design of intelligent workstations. In 1987, Texas Instruments completed development of the Gate Assignment Display System (GADS)...
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