Introduction and Implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) By: Mr. Rakesh Kumar , Ms Monika
Date: 26.01.2014 Total Quality Management is a management approach that originated in the 1950s and has steadily become more popular since the early 1980s. Total Quality is a description of the culture, attitude and organization of a company that strives to provide customers with products and services that satisfy their needs. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the company’s operations, with processes being done right the first time and defects and waste eradicated from operations. Total Quality Management, TQM, is a method by which management and employees can become involved in the continuous improvement of the production of goods and services. It is a combination of quality and management tools aimed at increasing business and reducing losses due to wasteful practices. Some of the companies who have implemented TQM include Ford Motor Company, Phillips Semiconductor, SGL Carbon, Motorola and Toyota Motor Company.1
TQM is a management philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational functions (marketing, finance, design, engineering, and production, customer service, etc.) to focus on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives. TQM views an organization as a collection of processes. It maintains that organizations must strive to continuously improve these processes by incorporating the knowledge and experiences of workers. The simple objective of TQM is “Do the right things, right the first time, every time.” TQM is infinitely variable and adaptable. Although originally applied to manufacturing operations, and for a number of years only used in that area, TQM is now becoming recognized as a generic management tool, just as applicable in service and public sector organizations. There are a number of evolutionary strands, with different sectors creating their own versions from the common ancestor. TQM is the foundation for activities, which include: Commitment by senior management and all employees
Meeting customer requirements
Reducing development cycle times
Just in time/demand flow manufacturing
Reducing product and service costs
Systems to facilitate improvement
Line management ownership
Employee involvement and empowerment
Recognition and celebration
Challenging quantified goals and benchmarking
Focus on processes / improvement plans
Specific incorporation in strategic planning
This shows that TQM must be practiced in all activities, by all personnel, in manufacturing, marketing, engineering, R&D, sales, purchasing, HR, etc.2 Principles of TQM
The key principles of TQM are as following:3
Plan (drive, direct)
Do (deploy, support, participate)
Act (recognize, communicate, revise)
Measurement and recognition
Fact Based Decision Making
SPC (statistical process control)
The 7 statistical tools
TOPS (Ford 8D – team-oriented problem solving)
Systematic measurement and focus on CONQ
Cross-functional process management
Attain, maintain, improve standards
Service relationship with internal customers
Never compromise quality
Customer driven standards
The Concept of Continuous Improvement by TQM
TQM is mainly concerned with continuous improvement in all work, from high level strategic planning and decision-making, to detailed execution of work elements on the shop floor. It stems from the belief that mistakes can be avoided and defects can be prevented. It leads to continuously improving results, in all aspects of work, as a result of continuously improving capabilities, people, processes, technology and machine capabilities. Continuous improvement must deal not only with improving results, but more importantly with improving...
References: 1. Gilbert, G. (1992). “Quality Improvement in a Defense Organization.” Public Productivity and Management Review, 16(1), 65-75.
2. Hyde, A. (1992). “The Proverbs of Total Quality Management: Recharting the Path to Quality Improvement in the Public Sector.” Public Productivity and Management Review, 16(1), 25-37.
3. Martin, L. (1993). “Total Quality Management in the Public Sector,” National Productivity Review, 10, 195-213.
4. Swiss, J. (1992). “Adapting TQM to Government.” Public Administration Review, 52, 356-362.
5. Tichey, N. (1983). Managing Strategic Change. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
6. Hill Stephen, 1991. “Why Quality Circles Failed but Total Quality Management Might Succeed.” British Journal of Industrial Relations, 29(4), 541-568.
7. Ishikawa, K, 1985.What Is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice- Hall.
8. Smith, AK, 1993. “Total Quality Management in the Public Sector.” Quality Progress, June 1993, 45-48
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