THE ANALYSIS OF INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION STRATEGIES USED IN OBAMA’S SPEECHES
According to Slagell (2009), in everyday language, public speaking refers to the communication practice of a speaker sharing ideas with an audience primarily through speech. The process of sharing ideas for the audience can be done in many ways such as speech or also called as oratory. Following Astuti (2011, p.23-26) stated that public speaking including speech has many important points, i.e. increasing self confident, adding friends and partner, correcting verbal and non-verbal communication, having experience to face unexpected situation to speak infront of public, increasing achievement in career, and delivering opinion. Speech as a part of communication has its own structure in order to make the ideas can be transferred easily. Furthermore Else and Paperbacks (1970, p.28-30) noted that plot structure of speech include three seperatd but integrated parts : the beginning, middle, and end. Abstract part contains of the overview of the speech and gives the audience a sense of what they are going to receive. Body contains of materials that orator is going to deliver for the audience, and conclusion contains of summarize of the speech. Eventhough each part has their own important points, but some sections receive more attention than others section because of the way people listen. For instance, Lucas (2009) points out that the first priority in audience’s attention is abstract. In abstract section, orator can gain the highest attention of the audience because they are most ready to be informed, persuaded, and entertained. The second priority is conclusion because the listener might hope an inspiring closing which can change their life. The last priority is body because the attention of listener will up and down in this section. The introduction and conclusion part appear in every speech because most of the listeners give their attention in introduction and conclusion, orator needs to consider some strategies of introduction and conclusion to grab attention of the audience to make his/ her speech can be delivered easily. Lucas (2009) talked about 4 kinds of strategies in introduction of speech, that is relating the topic to the audience, stating the importance of your topic, startling the audience, arousing the curiosity od audience, asking the audience, using a quotation, and telling a story. He also mentioned 6 kinds of strategies in conclusion of speech, that is signaling the end of the speech, reinforcing the central idea, summarizing speech, ending with quotation, making a dramatic statement, and refering to the introduction. Astuti (2011) also talked about 7 kinds od strategies in introduction of speech, that is using grabber, telling a joke, using quotation, telling a story, using games, using statistic data, and using visual aids. She also mentioned 5 kinds of strategies in conclusion of speech, that are summarizing each point in body section, making a clear and brief closing sentence, using a rhetorical question, using a quotation, making a repeated statement. Barack Obama deliver more than one speech in a day using many kind of introduction and conclusion strategies to increase the attention of the audience in his speeches in order to make sure that his idea can be delivered clearly. It is very interesting that every single word from his speech become a topic to persuade many people because Barack Obama also used those strategies. His speech in every occasion become an attention of people in many countries. Thronton wrote in articledashboard.com about the analysis of Obama’s speech, “Yes We Can” . He analyzed obama’s speech and found that Obama used an arousing the audience’s curiousity in his introduction by giving a sentence which told the audience that there is something that must be changed. This strategy refer to the introduction strategy by Lucas. Obama also used anecdotes to deliver the...
References: Slagel Amy.(2009). 21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook. Thousand Oak, CA: SAGE references online.
Astuti, Novita Kristi.(2011). Jurus Kilat Jago Public Speaking Secara Otodidak. Jakarta: Laskar Aksara.
Lucas, Stephen E.(2009). The Art of Public Speakin. Boston: The McGraw Hill Companies Inc.
Toney, B.A (2009). Speech Types Based on Purpose. Retrieved from http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Barbara_A_Toney. Accessed on 09 April 2013
Robinson, A. (2010). The meaning of decriptive method in research. Retrieved from http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/2045654?oo=0 . Accessed on 16 April 2013
A. Definition of Speech
According to Astuti (2011:8), public speaking is a technique to communicate a message or idea in front of people in order to make them understand the information or alter someone’s views or opinions
B. Speech Types
Toney (2010) states that speech has 4 different types based on its purpose : persuasive speech, informative speech, inspirative speech, and entertaining speech.
C. The structure of Speech
Lucas (2009) states that there are 3 parts in structure of speech, there are abstract, body, and conclusion
Lucas (2009) indicates that listeners have the following priorities :
* First priority -- Abstract : You can count on listener’s greatest physical and mental attention at the outset of the speech
E. The Introduction strategies in Speech
Lucas (2009) points out 11 introduction strategies used in speech, they are:
Astuti (2011) also points out several strategies in introduction part of the speech :
Lucas (2009) points out several strategies to make an inetresting conslusion in speech, they are:
Astuti (2011) also give us several strategies in making a great conclusio, they are:
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