Intervention for Schools

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Interventions targeting parental involvement with the school and computer-assisted learning to enhance dyslexic students’ reading comprehension
Education has long been recognised as an indispensable part of life, which serves as a platform to convey general knowledge, and develops critical skills for children to achieve their best potential. Given its value to today’s society, there has since been a leap forward in research to identify why the educational system still remains in a state of hiatus (Rumberger & Lim, 2008). The unfortunate reality of today’s economic climate for example, has been recognised to cause a divide in academic success between socio-economically disadvantaged children, from those with highly-educated affluent families (Noble, Norman & Farah, 2005). While there is some empirical evidence to support the above claims, current researchers such as Dubow et al. (2009) are now developing a more sophisticated understanding that the noteworthy disparities in academic performance, may be better explained by the influence of environmental-contextual factors (e.g. parental education, family interaction and household income). Moreover, since Cassen and Kingdon (2007) suggested that schools’ performance contributed to only 14% of the variation of low attainment, it becomes self-evident to examine the influence of family background, which has continually been suggested to be the central significant predictor of child’s cognitive abilities and their subsequent literacy development (Fuchs & Young, 2006). Consequently, the overarching aims of this essay will be to critically review the current literature highlighting the implication of socio-economic and home background disparities on academic performance. Two interventions will then be proposed, in an attempt to: (1) minimise the economic-achievement gap between low-income and affluent families; (2) enhance reading skills of specific children in a context that is meaningful to them, with the ultimate goal



References: Bakker, J., Denessen, E., & Brus‐Laeven, M. (2007). Socio‐economic background, parental involvement and teacher perceptions of these in relation to pupil achievement. Educational Studies, 33(2), 177-192. Björn, P. M., Kakkuri, I., Karvonen, P., & Leppänen, P. H. (2012). Accelerating early language development with multi-sensory training. Early Child Development and Care, 182(3-4), 435-451. Block, M. E., & Obrusnikova, I. (2007). Inclusion in physical education: A review of the literature from 1995-2005. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. Volume/pages Bond, L., Butler, H., Thomas, L., Carlin, J., Glover, S., Bowes, G., & Patton, G Carr, A., & Pike, A. (2012). Maternal scaffolding behavior: Links with parenting style and maternal education. Developmental psychology, 48(2), 543. Cassen, R., & Kingdon, G. (2007). Tackling low educational achievement. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Catalano, R. F., Oesterle, S., Fleming, C. B., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). The importance of bonding to school for healthy development: Findings from the Social Development Research Group. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 252-261. Davis, M., Herzog, L., & Legters, N. (2013). Organizing Schools to Address Early Warning Indicators (EWIs): Common Practices and Challenges. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 18(1), 84-100. Dearing, E., Kreider, H., Simpkins, S., & Weiss, H. B. (2006). Family involvement in school and low-income children 's literacy: Longitudinal associations between and within families. Journal of Educational Psychology,98(4), 653. Duch, H. (2005). Redefining parent involvement in Head Start: a two‐generation approach. Early Child Development and Care, 175(1), 23-35. Galindo, C., & Sheldon, S. B. (2012). School and home connections and children 's kindergarten achievement gains: The mediating role of family involvement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(1), 90-103. Gorjian, B., Alipour, M., & Saffarian, R. (2012). The effect of multisensory techniques on reading comprehension among pre-intermediate EFL learners: The case of gender. Advances in Asian Social Science, 1(2), 192-196. Green, C. L., Walker, J. M., Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (2007). Parents ' motivations for involvement in children 's education: An empirical test of a theoretical model of parental involvement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 532. Jones, M. W., Branigan, H. P., & Kelly, M. L. (2008). Visual deficits in developmental dyslexia: relationships between non‐linguistic visual tasks and their contribution to components of reading. Dyslexia, 14(2), 95-115. Noble, K. G., Norman, M. F., & Farah, M. J. (2005). Neurocognitive correlates of socioeconomic status in kindergarten children. Developmental science, 8(1), 74-87. O 'Connor, R. E., & Padeliadu, S. (2000). Blending versus whole word approaches in first grade remedial reading: Short-term and delayed effects on reading and spelling words. Reading and Writing, 13(1-2), 159-182. Rumberger, R., & Lim, S. A. (2008). Why students drop out of school: A review of 25 years of research. Sammons*, P., Elliot, K., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Siraj‐Blatchford, I., & Taggart, B. (2004). The impact of pre‐school on young children 's cognitive attainments at entry to reception. British Educational Research Journal, 30(5), 691-712.

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