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International Relations In An Age Of Uncertainty Pg

By catzlol Apr 20, 2015 1243 Words
International Relations in an Age of
Cambridge International History
Page 41-48
Mrs. Katie Aufenanger
Boca Raton High School

Revolutions & New

Political effects of WWI were
› Tsarist regime (Nicholas II and the

Romanovs) in Russia was overthrown by
the Bolshevik Revolution (1917)
› Kaiser Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate

Revolution seemed a genuine threat in
every European capital.

Woodrow Wilson

Became President of USA in
Made decision to bring USA
into WWI in 1917
Considered himself to be
mediator between rival
European nations after WWI
Created the Fourteen Points to
help establish a fair and lasting
Suffered a stroke in 1919 but
served as President until 1921.

The USA and the Paris Peace Conference

The US Senate refused to ratify the
settlement agreed at the Paris Peace
› What does Ratify mean?

The US wanted to return to Isolationism
and keep out of foreign affairs as much
as possible.

Russia and Communism

Russia was not invited to participate in
the Paris Peace Talks.
The Bolshevik government was
determined to spread Communism
› Based on ideas of Karl Marx & Friedrich

› A classless society where there is common
ownership of the means of production
› Opposite of Capitalism (where individuals
can become wealthy through ownership of
land, factories, etc.)

The Peace Settlements of 1919-1920
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
1. No Secret Treaties or alliances
between countries

Wilson believed the secret
treaties/alliances contributed significantly
to WWI

Freedom of the Seas in peace & war


No more unrestricted submarine warfare

Removal of Trade Barriers


Protectionist policies should be avoided
because it causes anger and resentment
among nations

4. Reduction of Armaments by all nations
› European arms race of late 1800s was a major

cause of WWI

5. Adjustment of colonial claims, taking
natives’ wishes into account

Rival imperial claims should be settled by
negotiations, not conflict.

6. Russia to be invited to society of nations
and all land restored

Russia’s involvement in negotiations of
settlement was vital for lasting peace.

7. Restoration of Belgian Territory

All land taken from Belgium during war
should be returned.

8. Liberation of France
› France should be freed from German

occupation and Alsace & Lorraine should
also be returned

9. Readjustment of Italian Frontiers along
lines of nationality.

Wilson believed nationality was based on
language. Areas that were predominantly
Italian-speaking should belong to Italy.

10. Independence for peoples of AustriaHungary
› People should have a chance for

independence and self-governance

11. Restoration of Balkan Nations (Romania,
Serbia, Montenegro)

Serbia should also be given access to the sea
so they can trade effectively.

12. Self-government for non-Turkish peoples
and free passage through Dardanelles for all

Non-Turkish peoples should be granted
independence and their own governments. All
nations’ ships can have access to the

13. Independence for Poland
› Poland should also be provided with Sea


14. The Creation of a League of Nations to
ensure future peace
› Wilson envisioned an international

organization where nations could discuss
their disagreements and deal with them by
negotiation and not war.

Russia and World War I

The Russian Revolution of
1917 left Russia in the
hands of Bolshevik leader,
Vladimir I. Lenin
› Lead the Union of Soviet

Socialist Republics (USSR)
from 1917-1924

Lenin believed it was
essential to end Russia’s
involvement in WWI
Signed the Treaty of BrestLitovsk on March 3, 1918.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Terms of treaty were extremely harsh
on Russia
Russia lost Poland, Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Ukraine, Georgia and
These areas contained much of
Russia’s best farmland, raw materials
and heavy industry
› Russia lost 25% of its population 25% of its

industry and 90% of its coal mines.

Russian Land Lost

“Three Bones
– a Bountiful
A political cartoon from
1918 by American
cartoonist, E.A. Bushnell

The End of the War

With Russia out of the war, Germany no
longer had to fight on two fronts.
› Germany was able to launch a major offensive on

the Western Front and things looked good for the
Central powers.

The Allies launched a counter-offensive that
drove the Germans back.
Germany tried one last naval battle against
the British.
› German sailors, convinced this was a suicide

mission, mutinied.
› This sparked a wider revolution within Germany
and Kaiser Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate.

Problems for the Paris peacemakers

January 1919 – nearly 30 countries met a
Versailles, near Paris.
Goal: Develop a settlement that would end WWI
and prevent something like it from happening
Revolutions were happening throughout the
former Austro-Hungarian, Russian and Turkish
› Revolution seemed a genuine threat in France and other

major European nations.

To avoid revolutions, decisions at the peace
conference needed to be reached quickly…

The Council of Four

 Made majority of the decisions at the Paris Peace
1) President Woodrow Wilson (USA)
2) PM David Lloyd George (Britain)
3) PM Georges Clemenceau (France)
4) PM Vittorio Orlando (Italy)*
*Italy actually had little influence, so most decisions were made by the “Big Three”

Disagreements over Germany

Clemenceau’s View:
› Destroy Germany militarily and economically
› Wanted to ensure Germany could never

threaten French borders again.
› Earned nickname “The Tiger”

Lloyd George’s View:
› Wanted less severe punishment for Germany
› Germany was major consumer of British

exports, so Britain wanted Germany on a fast
path to recovery.
› British public option was strongly anti-German

Wilson’s Views
› Wanted a lenient peace based on the Fourteen

Points and his slogan “Peace without Victory”.
› Believed harsh punishment for Germany would
cause resentment and make future conflict more

Wilson could no longer claim to fully represent
the government of the USA because the
Democrats had lost control of the Senate in the
midterm elections.
› US Congress consists of two “houses” – the Senate

and the House of Representatives.
› The Senate is the more powerful of the two – USA
can only enter into treaties with approval of the

Treaty of Versailles

None of the defeated nations were
invited to the Paris Peace Conference
Germans were horrified by the terms of
the treaty, but had no choice but to sign
Signed on June 28, 1919
› Germany lost 70,000 sq. kilometers (27,000

sq. miles) and almost 7 million people

Conditions of the Treaty of Versailles

Alsace & Lorraine were returned to France
Eupen & Malmedy went to Belgium
Northern Schleswig went to Denmark
The Saar Valley would be administered by
the League of Nations
› After 15 years, A Plebiscite (a vote where

people get to share their opinion for or
against a proposal) would decide whether it
would belong to Germany or France

The Rhineland was to be demilitarized.

Conditions of the Treaty (Continued)

Much of West Prussia went to Poland,
allowing access to the Sea through the
Polish Corridor.
Port of Memel went to Lithuania
Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became
independent states
Germany lost its African colonies, which
became Mandates
› Mandates: Territory taken from one defeated

nation and given to another country, which
would administer it on behalf of the League of

German Lands Lost

Germany Takes the Blame

German armaments were limited to a
maximum of 100,000 troops
› No tanks, military aircrafts or submarines
› Maximum of 6 battleships

Anschluss (union) between Germany &
Austria-Hungary was forbidden
War Guilt Clause blamed Germany & its
allies for the outbreak of WWI
Reparations: Compensation for war
› £6.6 Billion – not settled on until 1921
› Equivalent to £525 Billion ($834 Billion) in

2012 Values

What does this cartoon imply about the future of Germany?

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