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The United Nations
It is 1941 and the war against the Axis forces has been waging in a state of total war for 2 years, and has no sign of letting up only widening participation and brutality. Since the start of the century has been two world wars, inter-war recession and instability within the world order. The previous attempt from the League of Nations to prevent a second world war has failed due to its inability to create a system of collective security. The manner in which the First World War broke out highly discredited the idea that 'a balance of power' would always keep the peace. In fact, its failure in 1914 was only made worse by the rough balance of power, in all-out war. An alternative basis for international security had to be found, America and Britain knew that if the allied forces win the war then they must have a plan to prevent the cycle of economic depression and aggressive warfare repeating itself. Implementation
The initial development of the United Nations starts with the failure of its predecessor the League of Nations which, in part, lies in the inability to 'bring all the great powers into its personal council to take responsibility for world peace.' (Gareis 2012) The failings represent a gaping hole in the structural systems used in order to prevent the growing crisis of aggressive and illegal conflict, after WWI the issue of conflicting states was not adequately addressed. These inadequacies are highlighted when we see that Japan and Germany left the council in 1930 and the USSR was expelled in 1939 after its attack on Finland. In 1941Roosevelt, at this point America was still not in the war, proposed that a 'security organisation for monitoring the conquered enemy states' should be set up. Churchill was an avid supporter of the League of Nations and the concept of collective security until the rise of the Nazi regime, at which point he saw this true expansionist nature of this fascism and spoke out many times about the non-negotiable ideological nature of Hitler. Churchill suggested that this security organisation should be strengthened by representation from other regions and powers. Once the USA had entered the war twenty-six countries including the USSR, China, UK and the USA pledged via the 'declaration by united nations' on 1st January 1942, however this declaration was not a global peace keeping organisation yet rather United Nations was meant in a self-definitive way and this was a more of an Atlantic alliance. Roosevelt believed in an American-Anglo run United Nations but by 1942 he was willing to include the USSR and China to the powers which would be responsible for world peace. The cooperation of the ' four policemen' together would control the enemy states of the Second World War, however, Churchill recognised the difficulties in collaborating with the Soviet Union and also the Chinese were still recovering from their own civil war. The Moscow conference in 1943, brought about a real innovation in the construction of the UN as the 'four policemen' announced that they would be leading the creation of 'a general international organisation, based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving states' (Joint Four Nation Declaration, 1943, point 4). This commitment was then followed by another conference in Teheran, November 1943, in which the USA drafted an outline for the Global Organisation, including plans for a security council at the heart of the peace driven United Nations. Between August and October of 1944 the Dumbarton Oaks conference lead to the first draft of statute, outlining some of the key features of the UN and the charter; the USSR sought to rebalance the power within this organisation as it was an American led creation and requested '16 unified republics as individual, equal members.' (Gareis 2012). However, they only received the instatement of Ukraine and what was then Byelorussia as...
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