During World War II, Propaganda was a driving force that kept the battles heated and each nation’s population united for a common cause. When we look back at World War II, both countries, Germany and the United States, created vast promotions during the war that were degrading to their opposing sides. A great sense of nationalism was building up and these propagandists did anything to keep their country on top no matter how degrading and deceiving it could possibly be. They stereotyped and lied about their opponents just to heighten patriotism through posters and film and the images used in these types of propaganda by both governments took every flaw of our enemies and blew them out of proportion. While the United States promoted production and Germany uplifted xenophobic thoughts, both countries created a sense of nationalism and brought their countries together under fraudulent thoughts of their enemies.
The League of Nations was an international organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes. It was first proposed by President Woodrow Wilson as part of his Fourteen Points plan for an equitable peace in Europe, but the United States was never a member. The league failed to resolve conflicts in the late 1920s and early 1930s. It never had a military alliance, and therefore could not enforce its decisions. This lead to an arms race, and there was nothing the league could do to prevent the Second World War. Wilson's solution was to take the treaty and the League to the American people. Wilson believed that if he convinced enough Americans that only the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations could prevent all other future catastrophic wars, then the Senate would have no choice but to ratify the treaty.
The Soviet Union began with a large Civil War emerging from a relatively mercantile economy. Under Lenin, the nation began to see some degree of free market Capitalism, but, under Stalin, the economy was put under control of the State, and Totalitarianism began. After a quick, forced, and costly industrialization, the USSR emerged as a Superpower, rival to the USA. Also, under Stalin, and later other leaders, the Soviet Union neglected agriculture in favor of military. As a result, millions starved. Finally, because of the foolishness and corruption in the State, the Soviet Union fell apart under Gorbachev in 1991. The People's Republic of China wouldn't have existed if it weren't for USSR funds. However, that's not where the difference comes into play. China based its revolution on the backs of the peasants, and, after victory, Mao Zedong tried to equalize the population by swapping all of the upper class and lower class, leaving educated scholars in the fields for farming and ignorant peasants in major government roles. Needless to say, nothing got done willingly, as not enough food was produced by the new "farmers." This came, unfortunately, during a time when China was forcing industrialization as well, causing the deaths of hundreds of millions of people. After Mao's death, China witnessed the failures of the Soviet Union and decided to adapt in order to survive. Instead of sticking with a State-run economy, China changed. Now, China allows for a good deal of free market Capitalism, as long as everybody understands that the market is only free because the Communist Party of China decided that it was free. In essence, the Soviet Union used proletarians, China used peasants; both used State-run economies; the Soviet Union collapsed because it didn't change, China changed and still thrives.
Gorbachev's primary goal as General Secretary was to revive the Soviet economy after the stagnant Brezhnev year. In 1985, he announced that the Soviet economy was stalled and that reorganization was needed. Gorbachev proposed a "vague programme of reform", which was adopted at the April Plenum of the Central Committee. He called for increased industrial and agricultural productivity, fast-paced technological modernization, and attempted to reform the Soviet bureaucracy to be more efficient and prosperous. Gorbachev soon realized that fixing the Soviet economy would be near-impossible without reforming the political and social structure of the Communist nation. Gorbachev announced his new policy of perestroika in 1986. The new policy of "reconstruction" was introduced in an attempt to overcome the economic stagnation by creating a dependable and effective mechanism for accelerating economic and social progress. According to Gorbachev, perestroika was the "conference of development of democracy, socialist self-government, encouragement of initiative and creative endeavor, improved water and disciplined, more glasnost, criticism and self-criticism in all spheres of our society. It is utmost respect for the individual and consideration for personal dignity."