TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
Course Code : IBO – 01
Course Title : International Business Environment
Assignment Code : IBO – 01/TMA/2013-14
Coverage : All Blocks
1. Explain in detail four of the main multilateral environmental agreements with trade provisions.
Objectives and Overview of CITES
The principle objective of CITES, which entered into force in July 1975, is to ensure that international trade in specimens of certain wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of these species. Annual international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and to include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are so high that unregulated trade in them, together with other factors such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting or destroying their populations. CITES was thus conceived as an international effort to safeguard certain species from over-exploitation.
The CITES Preamble recognizes that wild fauna and flora are an irreplaceable part of the natural systems of the Earth that must be protected for future generations. Contracting States were also conscious, however, of the ever-growing value of wild fauna and flora from aesthetic, scientific, cultural and economic points of view. CITES therefore does not serve as an embargo on wildlife trade but subjects international trade in selected species to certain controls. It requires that the import, export, re-export and introduction from the sea of these species be authorized through a permitting system. 39
The species covered by CITES are listed
in three Appendices, depending on the level of the threat of extinction they face as a result of international trade. Appendix I includes species threatened with extinction, in which trade is only exceptionally permitted. Appendix II includes species not necessarily currently in danger of extinction but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival. Finally, Appendix III contains species that are protected in at least one country, which has asked other CITES Parties for assistance in controlling the trade.
CITES is among the largest conservation agreements in existence, with over 170 Parties, and has had significant success in curbing, and arguably halting, species extinction resulting from international trade
Trade-related and Other Measures in CITES
Trade-related measures represent an integral part of CITES given that the treaty itself focuses on ensuring that international trade in wild fauna and flora does not threaten their survival. Nevertheless, in CITES, as in other MEAs, these trade-related measures are supported by a broad range of other measures established to further the agreement’s objectives, including technical assistance, capacity building and a number of flexibility provisions. Trade-related measures in CITES include provisions for a permitting system for international trade in listed species, requirements for trade with non-Parties, and measures for cases of non- compliance.
CITES provides a regulatory framework for the international trade in specimens of certain wild animals and plants through a system of permits and certificates based on the listing of the species. 42
for Appendix I species those threatened with extinction – are strict, limiting their trade to exceptional circumstances that do not further endanger their survival. The import of specimens of Appendix I species for “primarily commercial purposes” is prohibited.
For Appendix I species, an export permit is required
and shall only be granted when the following conditions are met: a) the exporting Party has advised that the export will not be detrimental to the survival of the species; b) the exporting Party is satisfied that the species has been legally...
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