This project has been funded with support from the European Commission (226388-CP-1-2005-1-DE-COMENIUS-C21). This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
Module 3 (Theory)
Socrates Comenius 2.1
Globalization and Internationalization
Authors: Murat Ali DULUPÇU and Onur DEMİREL, Isparta
E-Mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
1. Defining Globalization4
1.1. Understanding Globalization: Behind the Curtain5
1.1.1. Historical Background5
1.1.3. Increasing Trade as a Vehicle7
1.1.4. Multinational Companies as a Transporter: Theories of MNCs and FDI8 220.127.116.11. Theories of MNCs8
18.104.22.168.1. Location Theory8
22.214.171.124.2. Internationalization Theory8
126.96.36.199. Theories of FDI9
188.8.131.52.1. Product Life Cycle Theory9
184.108.40.206.2. Internalization Theory10
220.127.116.11.3. OLI Paradigm (Eclectic Paradigm)10
18.104.22.168.4. Other Theories11
1.2. Multi Faces of Globalization12
1.2.1. Death of Distance12
1.2.2. End of the Nation State13
1.2.3. Hegemony of R&D13
1.2.4. Cultural Erosion14
2.1. Visible Impacts15
2.1.1. Information Tachnologies and Technology Flows16
2.1.2. Labor Hyper-Mobility and Global Distribution of Labor17 2.2. Deep Impacts18
2.2.1. Economic Issues18
22.214.171.124. Income, Income Distribution and Poverty18
126.96.36.199. Capital, Finance, FDI and MNCs19
188.8.131.52. Production and Competitiveness21
184.108.40.206. Globalization of Knowledge22
2.2.2. Environmental Issues23
2.2.3. Social Issues24
3. The Debate25
3.1. Advocates of Globalization: Neo-Liberal View25
3.2. Opponents of Globalization: Anti-Globalist Movement26
4. Theories of International Trade 28
4.1. Smith and Ricardo: Classical View28
4.2. Neo-Classical Theories of Trade29
4.4. New Trade Theories32
5. Regulating Globalization and Internationalization32
5.1. International Organizations33
5.1.1. International Monetary Fund - IMF33
5.1.2. World Bank - WB34
5.1.3. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development - OECD34 5.1.4. World Trade Organization – WTO35
5.1.5. United Nations – UN35
5.2. International Integrations35
5.2.1. European Union - EU36
5.2.2. Asia-Pacific Economic Co-Operation - APEC36
5.2.3. North American Free Trade Agreement - NAFTA36
5.2.4. European Free Trade Association - EFTA37
6. Future: Qua Vadis?38
AFTA: ASEAN Free Trade Area
APEC: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
CEFTA: Central European Free Trade Agreement
CIS: Commonwealth of Independent States
CSCE: Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe
CW: Corp Watch
EEA: European Economic Area
EFTA: European Free Trade Association
EU: European Union
FDI: Foreign Direct Investment
FE: Friends of the Earth
GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
IBRD: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ICT: Information and Communication Technologies
IDA: International Development Association
IFG: International Forum on Globalization
IMF: International Monetary Fund
MNC: Multi-National Company
NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
OECD: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development OEEC: Organization for European Economic Co-Operation
OSCE: Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe
PGA: Peoples’ Global Action
R&D: Research and Development
TFP: Total Factor Productivity
UN: United Nations
USA: United States of America
USSR: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
WB: World Bank
WEF: World Economic Forum
WSF: World Social Forum
WTO: World Trade Organization
GLOBALIZATION & INTERNATIONALIZATION
1. Defining Globalization
One of the terms that is used by everyone regardless they are businessmen, politicians or academicians and whose meaning and nature are not settled is the term “globalization”. The origin of the word globalization is “global”. The word global may take different meanings in different languages. The most common meaning however is the 3D geometric figure. According to Meydan Larousse the term global means “undertaken entirely”. This is the meaning attributed to the word global by Western languages. Besides, the term means “homogeneity” in French. Hence the term means both “entirety” and “homogeneity”. There are different ideas on the first usage of the term globalization with its contemporary meaning. Although the origin of the term with its contemporary meaning goes back to 17th century, the term grounds to the term “global village” used by Canadian sociology professor Marshall McLuhan in 1960 in his book titled “Explorations in Communication”. According to some other claims, the term globalization was first used in 1980s in the prestigious American colleges of Harvard, Stanford and Columbia and popularized by these environments. Another claim is that fist formations and forecasts of globalization were written by American entrepreneur-minister Charles Taze Russell with the term “corporate giants” in 1897. The book of Ronald Robertson called “Globalization” has brought in theoretical content to the term. The term which had not been used in 1980s even by academic environments, was started to be used increasingly as a key term in the explanations of the theories of social change in 1990s. The American Defense Institute defines globalization as “fast and continuous inter-border flow of goods, services, capital (or money), technology, ideas, information, cultures and nations”. According to the Institute, through globalization an unprecedented integration among economies is occurring, an information reform is being experienced, and markets, corporations, organizations and governance are becoming more international. As can be seen from the definition, the term globalization covers many concepts. The term cannot be assessed solely as either political or economic process, or worldwide spanning of production or capital flows. Globalization covers a process that encompasses the whole aforementioned dimensions. Therefore, the term globalization can be given different meanings by different people. It can be interpreted differently due to the different dimensions of the terms such as time/location, its dimensions, cause/result cycles and its perspectives. Hence the term can be used in different meanings by different people. Besides there are academic studies on which meaning is the term used. In one of such studies it is proposed that the term should be differentiated according to the disciplines. In this study the term globalization that has wide, complex and contradicting effects is tried to be analyzed mainly with its economic dimension also with some references to cultural, social, political and historical facets. The study intends to help young people that must interpret globalization correctly in order to shape their career paths and prepare themselves to the working life. This obligation necessitates cogitation on globalization and internationalization for young in order to shape their future. While economic, social and political developments in various countries easily affect firms, economic and national policies, employment markets and individual enterprises, the employment opportunities have crossed the frontiers.
1 1.1. Understanding Globalization: Behind the Curtain
Today labor and capital flows among countries and corporations with an unprecedented pace and amount. Therefore capital flows, production and service activities, commercial and technological developments attain international character. Billions of dollars can be transferred with only one “click”. In this framework the dimensions and the domain of the competition that enterprises face change inevitably, enterprises become international, production and service activities, and international horizontal integrations increase. Multi-National Companies (MNC) and foreign direct investment (FDI) become more effective on individual economies. Now national frontiers disappear or at least lose its former rigidity and world head for an economic, political and cultural integrity. There are historical origins of this process of chance and transformation and this process can be traced back to the first eras of mankind. On the other hand a common belief, that globalization has accelerated after some specific developments, prevails and the globalization process can be divided into stages according to these developments. As the result of these developments and stages trade increases in the world and this increase bears economic, social, political and cultural effects. While trade furnishes the spanning of goods and services all over the world, it also generates the spanning of cultures, their interactions and competitions. At this point worldwide branding, pop stars, similar TV programs are the examples to be thought of. While economic activities affect cultures, sometimes cultures may shape economic activities. Furthermore MNCs and FDI flows arise when trade is insufficient or inefficient. This alternation first affects the global economy and then the whole human values and causes different structures to arise as a result of new formations.
1 1.1.1. Historical Background
One of the most fashionable concepts of today, globalization, is in fact not a product of 20th century. Trade is international since the flint stone trade of Neanderthal human and globalization is a subject of history since first ages. It existed when the Silk Road started in China and reached to the frontier of the Persian Empire and enlarged towards the Roman Empire and during the Roman Empire, the Persian Empire and the Dynasty of China. Another example is the Golden Age of Islam: Early global economy created by Muslim merchants and explorers that ended up with the globalization of crops, commerce, knowledge and technology in the Old World-wide and the times that more integration was achieved along the Silk Road during the Mongol Empire. With the accession of Portuguese and Spanish Empires to every corner of the world in the 16th and 17th centuries after they had reached India, global integration continued through the enlargement of European trade. During their dynasties Roman and Ottoman Empires developed “world systems” consistent with their hegemony in the “discovered” world and Pax Romana and Pax Ottoman constituted examples of globalization that “effects and compasses the whole world” in 19th century with the Pax Britannica known as the world order developed by Britain. The development in the automation network with the Industrial Revolution accelerated the globalization process. Two significant world wars and then the competition between the United States of America (USA) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) carried humanity into a very dangerous point. Consequently, the reality that instead of “power” “norm” should operate in order to alleviate the tension between these two blocs loomed large. The idea of the Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe (CSCE) was the originating point of the appearance of this norm. With the Final Act adopted at the Helsinki Conference which is the first step of the conference and hence second wave of globalization a general agreement on the subjects of security, economy, trade, energy and humanity between the two blocs was achieved. Thereafter, Summits of Belgrade 1977-78, Madrid 1980-83, Vienna 1986-89 and Paris 1990 were held. New rings were added with the Summits of Copenhagen 1990, Moscow Meeting on Human Dimension 1991, Prague-Vienna Confidence Building Measures 1992 and Helsinki. Finally significant contributions were done to the formation of a smoother world in 200s in the “democracy and human rights” framework with the come up of “full respect for human rights” as a consequence of Lisbon 1996 and Istanbul 1999 Summits of the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE). In the USSR the Perestroika reforms were accepted by Gorbachev in 1985 which means the restructuring of the planned economy in order to modify it. Partial liberalization of the world of business was aimed. In this process Glasnost aimed to decrease the level of corruption in the public sector through openness and transparency. This background today resting in the dusty pages of history books in fact constitutes the infrastructure of immense contemporary changes.
2 1.1.2. Stages
Continuing globalization process may be divided into many stages encompassing colonization, slave trade, church constructions abroad, inventions in the high-capacity transportation, industrialization, highway constructions among provinces and countries, electrical and electronic infrastructure. On the other hand Robertson claims that globalization which is thought to be peculiar to present day is in fact a process began before the modernity and capitalism and divides this process into five stages and suggests that the last stage started in 1960 is full of ambiguities. A commonly accepted division divides the globalization process into three stages.
Table 1: Stages of Globalization
|Stages |First Stage |Second Stage |Third Stage | | |1490 |1890 |1990 | |Impulse |Nautical developments |Industrialization and its |Multi-National Companies in 1970s, | | | |requirements |Communication Reform in 1980s, Disappearance of| | | | |Competitors of the West in 1990s | |Process |Profit and then military |Evangelists, then explorers, then |Cultural-Ideological effect, therefore | | |occupation |companies and finally occupation |countrywide spontaneous effect | |Medium |To get the God’s religion to |Burden of the white man, humane |Highest level of civilization, governance of | | |the pagans |mission, racialist theories |international community, “invisible hand” of | | | | |the market, globalization: for everyone’s | | | | |interest | |Political Structure |Empires and Colonization |Nation States |Regional and Economic Integrations | |Result |Colonialism |Imperialism |Globalization |
Source: Yaman, 2001.
First Stage (1490): Started with the overseas discoveries of the West. The discoveries were followed by the establishment of colonial empires. Second Stage (1890): Second extension of the West started after 1870 and institutionalized in 1890s. The utilized technology after the industrial revolution generated high imbalances between the West and the rest of the world. This difference was resulted with the deployment of Western countries into the markets of countries that had not experienced the industrial revolution and exploitation of the resources in these countries. A merciless competition that curtails profit rates started. This competition previously had remained at the firm level as the land and resources abounded but later on as the free lands become scarce it raised to the national level. Increased competition resulted in conflicts and the First World War. The world changed in many respects after the First and Second World Wars. Almost all the ordinary balances collapsed and a new formation in the world started. First, balances that collapsed and changed were the former economic powers and political authorities connected to these powers. The empires and monarchies and their colonies which are the power source and scattered into various continents diffused one by one through declarations of independence. When economic and political balances changed, social and cultural values and balances disappeared, the newly gaps were closed by new balances. One of them was USA and the other was USSR. Thereby two poles and two blocs formed in the world. But during the Second World War major changes occurred. When the vast part of Europe was ruined, industrial economy in USA experienced a huge growth. Third Stage (1990): In the first two stages instable balances aroused. The number of independent states increased, conflicts increased and accelerated. Identity conflicts reached to peak in the underdeveloped countries. The national markets of the West were insufficient; markets were desired to expand in order to encompass the whole world. In this process there were no competitors against the West like the ones in 1490 and 1890 stages because the third stage both was the factor that engendered the collapse of Soviet Bloc and the West was left alone to conquer the world as a result of this collapse. The third stage was more powerful, widespread and faster than the first two stages because of the hegemony of MNCs on the world economy started in 1970s, communication revolution created by putting technological inventions of the West like optical cable, communication satellites, computers, internet in 1980s and disappearance of power balances with the dissolution of the USSR and Europe’s turning up as the only focus of power again in 1990s. Therefore globalization has become a process that can not be reversed and it should be accorded and strategies should be developed against the process.
3 1.1.3. Increasing Trade as a Vehicle
World trade volume of $380 billion in 1950 has increased to $21.2 trillion in 2005. The reasons of such a high increase in the world trade can be listed as the decrease in tariffs, trade agreements signed among countries and regions, regional integrations, developments in and cheapening in communication and transportation technologies, the mass and just-in-time production and the standardization of the tradable goods, convergence of human needs and the creation of new needs for humankind that can be denoted as “New World Order” or “Reganomics”.
Table 2: Trade in Goods
|Billion $ |1995 |1996 |1997 | |Economics |Agriculture |Manufacture |Information | |Technology |Plow |Machine |Computer | |Output |Food |Good |Information | |Resource |Land |Capital |Knowledge | |Unit |Family |Company |Network | |Energy |Muscle |Fossil Fuels |Brain | |Competition |Local |National |Global | |Education: |Primitive Minimal |Procedures |Thought Continuity | |*Demand *Focus |"What?" |Remarkable "How?" |"Why?" |
When Table 4 is examined, it can be seen that today economic activities depend on factors of production such as information, computer, knowledge, network and intelligence and that can be attained through R&D or that eases R&D. The result of R&D investment is reflected in the number of patents. They are positively related. This positive relationship can easily be followed from realizations. Another point is the severe relationship between inventions and transformation of these inventions into economic activities. The invention of Tetra Pak in Sweden, turbo by SAAB, dialysis, dynamite, cooker and fridge and their transformations into economic activities are good examples for this relationship. Today R&D has entered a new phase and started to globalize. Increasing R&D costs as a result of increased elasticity in cross-border R&D projects, strengthening of intellectual property rights or the taxation of R&D activities, and important policy changes support this tendency. In the 1995-2005 period the number of scientific publications that are jointly written in the international platform tripled. The ratio of cross-border cooperation in total world-wide inventions doubled (from 4% in 1991-3 to 7% in 2001-3). From the beginning of 1990s the ratio of the inventions that have cross-border property in total inventions has increased to 16% from 11%. The internalization process in the field of research is supported by MNCs final investment models. Much more than 16% of the total industrial R&D expenditures in OECD region in 2004 (it was 12% in 1993) is constituted by R&D done by domestic and foreign affiliates moreover, in most countries the affiliates under the control of foreign investment has more R&D intensities than the domestic firms. Although per capita R&D expenditures differ widely among countries, all are increasing. An important reflection of this increase can be seen in the number of R&D personnel.
4 1.2.4. Cultural Erosion
The globalization process supplies two distinct culture presences simultaneously. The first of them is to reach to upper limit of “particular culture”. This upper limit is the globe. All heterogeneous cultures dissolve in the prevailing culture that covers the whole world. Second presence is related to the “tightening of cultures”. Different cultures flow side by side without any organizational principle. Field of culture that includes more and more cultural movement and complexity constitutes the second stage of the globalization of culture. Therefore there are important discrepancies on the effects of globalization on culture. Some intellectuals like John Meyer and Daniel Bell believe that globalization brings integration. Cultural globalization indicates common shape of local cultures. The concept used to define this situation is “McDonaldization”. The term means the resemblance of life styles, cultural symbols and behaviors. For example, people from Germany to India, Singapore to Brazil watch the same series (Dallas), wear the same brand (Levi’s) and smoke the same cigarette (Marlboro). Marshall McLuhan through “global village” conceptualization and Ohmae through “cross-border civilization” definition designate the formation of global culture. This resemblance certainly does not indicate that local cultures are dependent on global culture. Local cultures have the possibilities to interpret the global and redefine it in their authentic characteristics framework. In this framework a lot of philosophers ranging from Giddens to Friedman, from Robertson to Cox refuse that globalization will combine all societies under a single economic, politic and cultural unit (cultural integration). Anthony Smith declares that “global culture” is problematic. According to him “global culture” is impossible as the term “culture” refers to a plural fact. If internet, satellite and mobile communication systems and the fact that the committee of Olympics has more members than the United Nations (UN) are taken into consideration, it can be said that cultural globalization diffuses faster than economic globalization. This process causes both the dissolve of local cultures in the global culture and the contributions of local cultures in the global culture. While the corruption of local culture by global culture occurs very easily and spontaneously through technology, communication and interaction, the protection of local cultures and the contribution of it to global culture is a process that should need endeavor and that should be managed.
5 1.2.5. Glocalization
The term glocalization is produced with the combination of the terms global and local. The term means “the creation of goods and services that are customized to supply global markets but consistent with local values. The fact that the terms glocalization and globalization are related to each other is accepted by many authors. For example when Ronald Robertson defines globalization as “the simultaneity of the universality of resolution and the resolution of universality” he actually highlights the simultaneity of globalization and glocalization. The problem of simultaneous globalization of the local and localization of the global can be denoted as dual-process of macro-localization (globalization of a local value) and micro-globalization (localization of a global value). Key features of glocalization are as follows:
Variety is in the basis of social life.
Glocalization does not eliminate all differences.
History and culture causes differences in all groups.
Glocalization ceases the fear that globalization will wipe all the differences out. Glocalization does not promise a world without any conflict or tension; instead it makes a more historical view of the complex structure. In this framework, glocalization that means the modification of globalization according to local conditions differentiate globalization from Westernization, Americanization and even McDonaldization. Now globalization evolves itself in order to include local values.
As globalization compasses a large scope and process, it has considerable effects while some effects can be seen in daily life; some has large-scale-deep effects.
1 2.1. Visible Impacts
One important result of globalization is the acceleration of changes of eras. It is denoted that human being having a history of more than one million years on earth took the first step to civilization with the settlement on land and therefore with the beginning of agricultural culture in 10,000 BC. The invention of writing in 4,000 BC has accelerated the development of human being. The widespread use of press in 14th century and the Reformation and the Renaissance movements followed by industrial revolution in the late 17th century have caused human being to develop but in the mid-20th century the concept of era starts to alter and pick up pace. The 1970s are called space era as a result of stepping on the Moon in 1969; 1980s are called communication era as a result of developments in communication through satellites; 1990s are called knowledge era-knowledge society as a result of the increased importance of knowledge and 2000s are called information era. In the information era, human being using computers can reach all new information online. The fact that 65% of the world trade volume in the beginning of 2000s is made online reveals the significance of this new concept.
1 2.1.1. Information Tachnologies and Technology Flows
Technologic development – developments in the production of goods and services, marketing and supply techniques (including firm organizational structures) takes place in the core of human progress and development. Technologic development at the national level occurs through invention and innovation, adaptation and modification of pre-existing technologies, and diffusion of technologies among firms, individuals and public sector. Statistical indicators can be confined in three major groups: scientific invention and innovation, diffusion of pre-existing technologies and benefiting new technologies. Another indicator is the measure of how much countries are exposed to foreign technologies. Measuring technology directly is difficult because it has no physical and easily countable presence such as pencils or automobiles. Contrary to services it has no well-defined price that allows measurement and summation either. Instead, it is embedded in products, intermediates, and processes. Consequently the studies trying to measure technology should use indirect techniques such as level of education, number of scientists and engineers, R&D expenditures and personnel, diffusion of technology, indicators of innovation (number of patents issued), ratio of high-tech activities in manufacturing value-added and exports, and national innovative capacity. If technologic diffusion in the world is examined under these three major groups of indicators, for the first group -scientific invention and innovation- scientific and technologic articles, patent and intellectual properties, and income from licensing statistics can be used. When analyzed, it is seen that these variables are related to income. According to 2003 data number of articles and patents per 1 million people in high-income countries are 83 and 36 times higher than those in low-income countries respectively. As of 2004 low-income countries’ income from intellectual properties and licensing is almost zero. Under the second group -utilizing older technologies- the statistics of per capita electricity consumption, phone lines per 100 people, phone call fees, highway and railway densities and airline usage can be used. When analyzed, although income has no effect on these statistics, culture and capacity has crucial implications on the usage of these variables. High-income countries consume 26 times more electricity (in 2004); have 18 times more phone lines and use it 20.7 times cheaper (in 2004); have 3.25 times more intense railways (in 2005); have 4.8 times more agricultural machines and tractors (in 2003); use airlines 60 times more (in 2004) than low-income countries. Third group is the utilization of new technologies. Under this group statistics of internet users, broad-band internet users, personal computer ownership, mobile phone ownership per 1000 people and internet band capacity can be used. When these statistics are analyzed, it is seen that income has direct effect as this kind of development is less costly and more elastic than older technologies necessitating infrastructure investments. High-income countries have 12 times more internet users (in 2005); 163 times more broad-band internet users (in 2005); have 53 times more personal computers (in 2004) and have 19 times more mobile phones (in 2004) than low-income countries per 1000 people. The relative efficiency of goods and services that an economy can produce with certain amount of labor and capital is called total factor productivity (TFP). In general, TFP is interpreted as the measure of production technology and its rate of growth as the measure of technical progress. International TFP comparisons reveal high productivity differences between high, and low and middle-income countries in the production of goods and services. As of 2005 average TFP in low-income countries is only 5% of the productivity in the USA. While this gap closes in low and lower-middle-income countries, upper-middle-income countries can only maintain their position against high-income countries. In the light of these indicators diffusion of technology has the following features: Although technologic levels of countries depend on their income levels, the nature of this relationship may differ according to the scope of technology analyzed. Although the level of technology is in the tendency to increase with income, the levels of technologies among countries converge. The level of technology may differ widely within the country. In the last decade the technology gap between middle and high-income countries narrowed. On average technology improved faster in low-income countries. The diffusion of technology between countries gets pace.
As a consequence, the most important feature of the level of technology is the diffusion pace of technology within a country.
2 2.1.2. Labor Hyper-Mobility and Global Distribution of Labor
As an unprecedented number of people move, migration is one of the most important variables that set the conditions of globalization in the beginning of 21st century. In today’s mobile world there are many global tendencies effecting migration and its management. These are: Demographic tendencies,
Economic differences between developed and developing countries, Trade liberalization necessitating more mobile labor force, in other words globalization, Communication network integrating all parts of the world,
In the world as of 2005, 192 million people (49.6% of whom are women) live somewhere outside their place of birth. Between 1965 and 1990 the number of international migrants increased by 45 million –an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In 2006 the growth rate is 2.9%. The remittances of these migrants are estimated to be over $276 billion worldwide in 2006 whose $206 billion flow to developing countries. There are roughly 30-40 million illegal migrants constituting 15-20% of migrant stock in the world. In recent years, migration may shift according to the centers of attractions for labor migration.
Table 5: Migration Statistics, 2005
| |# of Immigrants (Million|The Ratio of Immigrants to the | | |People) |Population of the Region | |Europe |64.1 |8.8 | |Asia |53.3 |1.4 | |North America |44.5 |13.5 | |Africa |17.1 |1.9 | |Latin America |6.7 |1.2 | |Oceania |5.0 |15.2 |
Source: [Available at http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/pid/255], (Accessed 10.02.2008).
As of 2005 the country that has the largest immigrant stock is the USA with 38.1 million immigrants. Russia and Germany follow her with 12.1 and 10.1 millions respectively. The countries that have the largest emigrant stocks are China, India and the Philippines with 35, 20 and 7 million emigrants respectively. In some regions in the world, the level of migrant stock shrinks: Although the level of Asian migrants reached 43.8 million in 2000 from its 28.1 million level in 1970, the share of Asia in the world migrant stock decreased to 25% from 34.5% in this period. Africa too experienced a decrease in international migrant share: from 12% in 1970 to 9% in 2000. The same holds for Latin America and the Caribbean’s (from 7.1% to 3.4%); Europe (from 22.9% to 18.7%) and the Oceania (from 3.7% to 3.3%). Between 1970 and 2000, only North America and the former USSR have achieved increases in their migrant shares (from 15.9% to 23.3% and from 3.8% to 16.8% respectively). The reason of the increase in the USSR is not the increase in the number of migrants, but the re-determination of the borders of the country. International stock of migrants concentrates in relatively low number of countries. 75% of international migrants are living in 12% of all the countries. In order to determine which one is most global among labor force, trade and capital flows one can examine the shares of these variables in the world labor force stock, production volume and total capital. As of 2004, while migration constitutes only 3% of total labor force stock, international trade constitutes roughly 13% of production and capital flows constitute 15-20% of total capital on average. Therefore the statistics reflect less global labor force than trade or capital.
2 2.2. Deep Impacts
In the last five decades a triad structure prevailed and in one end of this structure is the pluralist economies based on market economy, and socialist states attached to planned economy on the other end. Third structure is composed of the former colonies of mostly the West – the developing countries. These countries have socio-economic, political and cultural differences. However the dissolution of the USSR in 1990s facilitated a unipolar world based on market economy and democracy instead of bipolar world. All these political and ideological developments increased the popularity of the concept of globalization and increased its pace and deepened its effects.
1 2.2.1. Economic Issues
Globalization affects economies profoundly. It has strong effects on economic issues such as income, income distribution, capital formation, enterprises, production, competition and information flows. This part aims to identify these effects.
1 220.127.116.11. Income, Income Distribution and Poverty
In order to see the income differences between countries there is even no need for statistics. One watching TV can easily recognize that when Angola suffers famines football players in other countries may earn millions of dollars. In the world 3 million people die due to HIV, therefore 15 million children lose their parent or parents each year, at least 1.6 billion people live under unhealthy conditions, each year half a million women lose their life during pregnancy or birth. On the other hand it is estimated that there are 94,970 people whose financial assets exceed $30 million as of 2006 and their total financial assets worth more than $13.1 trillion, there are 9.5 million people whose financial assets exceed $1 million and their total financial assets worth more than $37.2 trillion. As of 2008 countries having per capita income of $905 or less are called low-income; those having per capita income between $906 and $3,595 are called lower-middle-income; those having per capita income between $3,596 and $11,115 are called upper-middle-income and those having per capita income of $11,116 or higher are called high-income countries. Accordingly among 210 countries with populations higher than 30,000 53 countries are low-income, 55 countries are lower-middle-income, 41 countries are upper-middle-income and 61 countries are high-income countries. In the year 2006 Norway had the highest nominal income of $66,530 and Burundi had the lowest -$100. In that year the average income in the world was $7,439. If these income figures are re-calculated according to purchasing power parities in order to eliminate price level differences among countries, as of 2008, the wealthiest individuals live in the USA with an average income of $44,260 and the poorest live in Burundi with $710. The world average is $10,218. If the income realizations are analyzed it can be seen that even in industrialized countries the average incomes were about $6,200 as of 1976. In other words, it is certain that the world has attained considerable income growth since then. Income growth rates differ among countries, so the income distribution. The studies on global income distribution are divided into two – those finding divergence and those finding convergence. In an example finding divergence, the income gap between African countries and western countries (the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) was found to be 1 to 2.6 in 1820; 1 to 12 in 1980 and 1 to 20 in 1998. On the contrary there are also scientific studies finding convergence. The reason of such a division may be different conceptualization of income (nominal exchange rates or income customized by purchasing power parity), different measurement techniques (extreme values vs. Gini coefficient) and different data sources. Each measurement has its own advantages and disadvantages, so all of them may be evaluated as correct. The reason of the deterioration of the world income distribution may be: Higher growth rates in the OECD countries,
Higher population growth in developing countries,
Low output growth in rural China and India and in Africa,
Increasing output and income differences between urban and rural parts of China and India –deterioration of income distribution within large countries, Variation in the terms of trade in favor of developed countries (the price of industrial and technologic goods that developed countries export increases faster than the price of goods and services that developing countries export). Differences in income levels are apparent in statistics. Countries may assign poverty threshold according to some norms. Besides, some international measurements are assigned for international comparisons. The best known of these is the ration of those who must live with less than $1 daily (absolute poverty) or +2 (poverty) to the population. These ratios are 70.8% and 92.4% respectively in Nigeria as of 2003. On the contrary the ratios are below 2% and 20% respectively in most countries. Although income distribution worsens among countries, poverty reduces. Today people get rid of absolute poverty but become poorer against developed countries have high income growths. This in turn causes the shrink of middle-class and resolution between rich and poor.
2 18.104.22.168. Capital, Finance, FDI and MNCs
Scale and scope of the financial globalization before 1914 is really impressive. More than 60 government securities and shares of firms from almost whole continent and sectors were traded in European Stock Exchanges. London was undoubtedly the financial centre of the world but Berlin and Paris challenged her. During 30 years of classical gold-standard there were no restrictions on financial flows and cross-border financial flows reached incredible levels. Between 1880 and 1914 Britain exported 4 to 5% of her GDP on average. European countries following the footsteps of Britain started to export capital in the last quarter of 19th century and in the 20th century the USA merged into the first global capital market boom as a capital exporter. A similar boom in international finance has been experienced 30 years after the collapse of Bretton-Woods system that introduces fixed exchange rates and restrictions on capital account. Till the end of 1980s liberalization of capital flows has widened into developing countries. Global financial markets built up in 1990s. Nowadays financial globalization is a word that is used in daily life. In 2006 foreign direct capital constituted half of net capital flows into developing countries. FDI inflows in 2006 increased by 38% and reached $1.31 trillion (second highest score after $1.41 trillion in 2000). This increase, although in different scales, has been experienced in three regions, namely developed, developing and Southeast Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. FDI inflows to developed countries increased by 45% and reached $857 billion. FDI stock increases each year as FDI inflows increase with the globalization process. While FDI stock in 1990 is estimated to be $1.78 trillion, as of the end of 2006 this figure is estimated to be $12 trillion.
Figure 3: FDI Inflows
Source: UNCTAD, 2007, p. 3.
The largest 5 non-financial MNCs of the world are General Electric (USA), Vodafone Group (United Kingdom), General Motors (USA), British Petroleum Company PLC (United Kingdom) and Royal Dutch/Shell Group (United Kingdom and Netherlands). In the first 100 MNCs there are 12 German, 2 Hong Kong, 2 Korean, 1 Mexican, 1 Malaysian and 1 Singapore enterprises but no enterprises from Turkey, Czech Republic or Lithuania. MNC that has investments in highest number of countries is the German Deutsche Post AG with investments in 103 countries. As of 2004 there are 2,129; 9,225 and 42,753 foreign MNC affiliates in Turkey, Germany and China respectively. These affiliates create employment of 2.28 million and 24 million in Germany and China. On the contrary Germany has 22,997 affiliates all over the world. The total employment in the world that is created by foreign MNC affiliates is 21.52, 25.10 and 72.63 million in 1982, 1990 and 2006 respectively. The other side of the coin regarding employment is that MNCs’ foreign investments instead of domestic investments export employment. For example Germany creates an employment of 4.61 million abroad through her MNCs. That means Germany loses an employment of 2.33 million due to MNC type of production. This figure is 3.5 million in the USA and 3.71 million in Japan. While governments of the countries that make FDI take precautions against capital outflow, host countries attracting FDI use this capital in order to solve their unemployment problems. The highest bilateral FDI relationships in the world are between United Kingdom- USA, Hong Kong-China, USA-United Kingdom, Japan-USA and Germany-USA (first country is the investor and second is the host country and ranking is done according to FDI inflows). The FDI stock in these countries is $1.13 trillion in 2005. Lastly, countries may be ranked according to their FDI performances and potentials. Accordingly, China, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Hong Kong and United Kingdom have both high performance and potential; Germany, Turkey, Japan and USA have high potentials but low performances. Countries that have low potentials and performances are generally those from Africa.
3 22.214.171.124. Production and Competitiveness
In recent years, global economy transformed with the elimination of obstacles against floes of goods, services, capital and labor and with the acceleration of technologic and scientific development. While the decreases in transportation and communication lowered the importance of location and promote enterprises to move their activities to low-cost locations, technologic developments create new business opportunities. This makes governments more sensitive in creating more business friendly environments and enhancing national competitiveness.
Table 6: Global Competitiveness Indices
|Rank of Country |2005 |2006 |2007 / 2008 | |Germany |6 |8 |5 | |Czech Republic |29 |29 |33 | |Lithuania |34 |40 |38 | |Turkey |71 |59 |53 | |Singapore |5 |5 |7 | |Korea |19 |24 |11 | |China |48 |54 |34 |
Source: WEF, 2007 and 2006.
International competitiveness is a concept that is related to marketing. If countries compete in marketing their products, then production bears a sense. If the goods and services that the country produces can not compete, the country’s production would have no-sense and she would prefer importation instead of domestic production. National competitiveness is measured by the “Global Competitiveness Index” of the World Economic Forum (WEF).
Table 7: Income Statistics
|Billion $ |2001 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 | |World |GNP |32,030 |32,131 |35,013 |40,373 |45,222 |48,482 | |USA |GNP |9,930 |10,145 |10,927 |12,059 |12,913 |13,446 | |Germany |GNP |1,978 |1,899 |2,115 |2,545 |2,876 |3,018 | |Czech Rep. |GNP |588 |613 |746 |940 |1,141 |1,295 | |Lithuania |GNP |11 |13 |15 |19 |24 |27 | |Turkey |GNP |166 |174 |198 |269 |342 |394 | |China |GNP |1,273 |1,407 |1,631 |1,928 |2,273 |2,642 | | | |$ |2001 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 | |World |GNP Per Capita |5,216 |5,168 |5,563 |6,338 |7,016 |7,439 | |USA |GNP Per Capita |34,800 |35,180 |37,570 |41,060 |43,560 |44,970 | |Germany |GNP Per Capita |24,020 |23,020 |25,620 |30,840 |30,870 |36,620 | |Czech Rep. |GNP Per Capita |5,750 |6,010 |7,310 |9,210 |11,150 |12,680 | |Lithuania |GNP Per Capita |3,270 |3,630 |4,330 |5,560 |6,910 |7,870 | |Turkey |GNP Per Capita |2,420 |2,510 |2,800 |3,780 |4,750 |5,400 | |China |GNP Per Capita |1,000 |1,100 |1,270 |1,500 |1,740 |2,010 |
Source: [Available at http://ddp-ext.worldbank.org/ext/DDPQQ/showReport.do?method=showReport], (Accessed 08.02.2008), Official Web Site of World Bank (Quick Query).
As can be seen from Table 6 countries may have large or narrow shifts in terms of ranking. What is important is the persistent tendency. These tendencies of increase or decrease in not persistent and after a threshold it may transform into narrow shifts. For example the first five ranks are pooled by 7-8 countries. The countries at lower ranks may achieve large shifts. These countries are those which utilize the globalization of production, technology and knowledge. Singapore, Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan are of good examples. Malaysia and China follow them. Although she is behind these countries, Turkey is a promising country with her upward climb. In the era of rapid globalization countries have incomes as much as they can compete. The world income continuously increase but the shares that individual countries get vary. Therefore gaps between countries in terms of income and per capita income appear. Globalization gives countries that can integrate to world economy the chance to increase their income, but on the other hand intensifies competition and make integration to world economy more difficult.
4 126.96.36.199. Globalization of Knowledge
As the openness of economies increases, more people and firms take part in the process of un-marketed connection intensification that includes knowledge and integration of knowledge, culture, ideology and technology flows. The globalization of knowledge may differ according to economy and sectors. There are four layers in the globalization of knowledge. These are: Local industrial specializations serving the world and specific-skill based activities: This title includes the most developed and location-specific activities of developed economies. The winner gets all the goods and services: There are some functions that are fulfilled by globally known individuals or those who supply different services and are well-known in the sectors such as financial services, media, sports, science and medicine. The activities that are fulfilled by those individuals can be transferred into international markets with low costs. This can be done by disclosure of consumers about the activity and its features or by adaptation of consumption patterns such that these products will be demanded. Export oriented specialized industrial cluster: Such specializations have increased in the last 25 years. Each country has some goods and services that she is good at due to her advantages attained by scale, resource based relative advantage, skill and know-how embedded in institutions. These types of activities are more important than they were as they locate in clusters and permanent technologic learning processes. In both cases knowledge does not globalize. Knowledge is anchored where it is generated and its replication is impossible. Therefore this kind of production results in specialization and trade. Globalization through displacement (Global product chains): It is the shift of non-location-dependent production to the low-labor-cost regions through FDI or licensing. In this case knowledge flow occurs from home country to host country. Non-tradables or quasi-tradables serving locally: Some products can not be traded as they are specific to regions. Therefore production is run where the consumption will take place. In other words production depends on location. In such conditions production is done in the market under globally-known brands. That is to say the mixture of global and local (glocalization) prevails. As MNCs standardized all the production processes flows of knowledge, particularly globalization of knowledge and ideas, appear in intangible assets. Debatable markets in manufacturing and service sectors: It is the production of standardized product such as durables, capital goods and other intermediate goods. As standardized products are produced with codified knowledge in general, the globalization of knowledge is pretty high. In such conditions economies of scale and vertical integrations may occur. In all types of production it is possible to talk about globalization. It is possible to talk about globalization even in the first layer that is the most closed one to the globalization of knowledge through spill-over effect and reverse-engineering. Development in the knowledge and communication techniques, the globalization of production and the intensification of competition trigger globalization of knowledge. The global knowledge in turn increases competition and therefore productivity.
2 2.2.2. Environmental Issues
Global environmental concerns have arisen with the recognition of the facts that ecologic processes are not restricted to national boundaries, environmental problems have cross-border effects (eco-systems and water basins that sustain life exceed national boundaries; air pollution diffuses all continents and oceans and there is only one atmosphere which yields protection against climate-preservation and harmful UV rays) and these problems have global effects, i.e. the disaster of Chernobyl effected many countries ranging from Bulgaria to Canada. In this framework, the concept for the ability that people should think and behave global bears a new dimension of global responsibility –not just for universal resources, but also for global justice. Therefore the connections between environment and globalization should be re-examined and taken into consideration. The negligence of these connections means misinterpretation of the dimensions and the nature of globalization and the loss of most important opportunities that may be beneficial for the solutions of hardest environmental problems that humankind faces. The fact that the world economy globalizes with the integration of national economies into international economy causes some pressures on global environment and natural resources; this in turn makes the sustainability of environment difficult and proves the dependency of human on environment. A global economy may bear global externalities and may worsen global inequality. The global nature of environment bears the necessity of global management of environment and in fact causes the infrastructure formation of international treaties and institutions and the growth of these. While the importance of the relationship between globalization and environment is explicit, the level of knowledge on how these two dynamics interact with each other is low. The literature on globalization and environment is uncertain (debating only the generalities); myopic (focused only on trade-related connections) and/or partial (focused only on the effects of globalization on environment, but not the reverse). However, the relationship between environment and globalization is bidirectional. Like globalization has effects on environment, environment also has effects on globalization. In this framework five striking interactions of the environment-globalization relationship are as follows: Rapid increase in global economic activities and the increase in demand for crucial and limited natural resources may affect the process of continuous increase of economic wealth negatively. Some studies revealing that the productive capacity of nature is exceeded by 25-30% or the fact that annually 2.5 million people lose their life because of environmental problems involving air pollution, unhealthy water and low quality of health services in the Asia-Pacific region highlight the significance of the situation. Interrelated processes of globalization and environmental deterioration form new threats for already insecure world. They affect the fragility of eco-systems and societies, at least the most fragile ones. The poorest societies face the highest risk. For example, even the adverse effect of climate changes excluded, the number of people that will be adversely affected from water shortage is expected to reach 5 billion in 2025 from its current level of 1.7 billion. Newly prosperous and the established wealthy should learn about the limitations of the ecological space where they live in and should behave consistent with the needs and rights of the people who are not that much lucky. In this context, the “workshop” metaphor (production in developing countries like China and consumption in wealthy regions like Europe and North America) seriously requires placing the “workshop” within a supply chain that is (a) really global in nature, and (b) not just an economic supply chain but an environmental one. Consumption – both in the North and the South – not only determines global environment, but also the future of globalization. Concerns on global markets and global environment will mix each other and become more interdependent. Most challenging environmental problems the world faces today are caused by developed or developing countries that are industrialized or industrializing. In 1990 the USA and China emitted 4,818.3 and 2,398.9 metric tones of carbon dioxide (CO2) respectively. They emitted 6,045.8 and 5,007.1 metric tones of CO2 respectively in 2004. Therefore in this period USA’s CO2 emission increased by 20% while China’s emission increased by more than 100%. Between 1990 and 2004 world CO2 emission increased by 2% on average annually while the rate of increase in developing countries is 5.7% and in OECD countries it is 1.3%. It is possible to say that as a result of globalization the shift of production into developing countries cause this difference. On the other hand more than half of the total of CO2 is emitted by a few developed countries. Therefore one of the important movements against environmental problems (particularly against global warming), Kyoto Protocol which was signed in 1997 in Japan and have 174 member countries has not been signed yet by the mostly industrialized country, the USA. 19 countries including Turkey have not announced their positions. Finally, although there are organs that determine the problems in the system caused by environment and globalization, the endeavor of these organs are divided and lacks coordination and consistency. Efforts and instruments for the holistic processing of the “system” either missing or poorly exploited.
3 2.2.3. Social Issues
As of 2006 total world population is 6.52 billion. China and India have the highest populations with 1.31 billion and 1.11 billion. Like income, population is not distributed evenly in the world. While 6,728 people live in Hong Kong per km2 and 6,376 people in Singapore, only 2 people live in Mongolia and Namibia, and 3 people in Australia. The level of education which can be qualified as infrastructure in the way of development may differ greatly among countries. While countries like Latvia and Lithuania have a literacy rate of 100%, the rate is only 24% in Mali. Another indicator for education is the rate of primary school completion. In some countries this rate may be 100% or higher (because of the education of people outside the assigned age group) but as of 2005 it is only 23% in the Republic of Central Africa. When the data of 1991 and 2005 are compared an improvement in the rate of primary completion can be seen easily. The largest increase was experienced in Venezuela with an increase from 43% to 92%. The differences in the level of education are closely related to the investments of these countries into education. While in some countries expenditure on education to GDP ratios are below 1% (Indonesia, 0.9%), some countries have a ratio above 10% (Botswana, 10.7%). Developing countries increase the share of education expenditure in public expenditure. Therefore developing and developed countries converge in terms of education. Today there is no gender discrimination in the primary and secondary education. As of 2005, the Republic of Central Africa has the worst ratio of 60% (the rate of female students to male students), but she experienced a significant development from the ratio of 40% in 1991. The life expectancy at birth differs among countries according to these countries’ health, environmental, cultural and wealth levels. For example, as of 2005 life expectancy for males is 39 and 38 for females in Zambia. At the other end is Hong Kong with life expectancy of 79 and 85 for males and females respectively. When the mortality rate under the age of 5 (per 1000 people) is analyzed it is seen that the world average decreased from 95 in 1991 to 75 in 2005. The worst statistics for infant mortality are experienced unfortunately in developing countries such as Sierra Leone, Nigeria, the republic of Central Africa and Mali. Even in these countries the mortality rates improve. In this improvement, assistance by various health and aid institutions to the developing countries and globalization of knowledge and health services has significant contributions. When the health expenditure per capita statistics are analyzed it is seen that there is 400 fold gap between the highest (USA with $6,096) and the lowest (the Republic of Congo with $15) expenditures as of 2004. This huge gap creates differences even in the rates of infant vaccination against tuberculosis and measles (only 40% and 23% of infants were vaccinated against tuberculosis and measles in Chad in 2005). A similar view prevails in the health services and improved water source utilization. Although 100% of people in developed countries benefit from these services, the rates in developing countries are about 10% and 50% respectively. What is satisfactory is that these ratios are improving.
3. The Debate
When all the benefits and costs of globalization are taken into consideration, for some it is a process that should be supported while for others it should be avoided. In this part advocate and opponent institutions and ideas are analyzed.
1 3.1. Advocates of Globalization: Neo-Liberal View
Established in Sweden as a non-profit organization World Economic Forum (WEF) is independent and international which was first designed by a group of businessmen in January 1971 with the leadership of European Commission and European Industrial Associations. It was founded as European Management Forum in Geneva, Sweden. However, the collapse of Bretton Woods fixed exchange rate system in 1973 and the Arab-Israel enlarged the focus of these meetings from management to economic and social issues and political leaders were invited to Davos in January 1974. European Management Forum changed its name as World Economic Forum in 1987 and tried to enlarge its vision in order to solve international conflicts. Organization endeavors for a worldwide governance system which is based on not only the rules but also on values. Its motto is “entrepreneurship in the global public interest”. Its members (1000 largest firms that have global activities, rank among top companies within their industry and/or country and have a leading role in shaping the future of their industry and/or region and 200 relatively small firms from developing countries) believe that without economic development, social development is infeasible and vice versa. The organization’s vision has 3 dimensions. These are:
To be the most important organization that forms and strengthen leader global communities, To be the creative force that shape global, regional and industrial strategies, To be a catalyst in the choices of communities which have global attempts for the development of the world. Members get advantage as they recognize and affect two new developments: The key problems of the world can not be solved by governments, business or civil society alone and Strategic foresights in a world characterized as complex, fragile and synchronized can not be achieved passively. These foresights can be achieved through continuous interaction with partners and those who are best informed in their fields of study. Therefore in order to realize its mission the WEF formed an integrated value chain through the inclusion of world leaders into the communities, inspiring them with strategic foresights and evoking them with initiatives. Another globalization advocate is the Washington Consensus which was initiated in 1989 by John Williamson in order to support the countries that had experienced crisis through Washington D.C. based institutions such as the IMF, the World Bank (WB) and the US Department of Treasury and that comprises of ten special economic policy recommendations (fiscal policy discipline, redistribution of public expenditures, tax reform, marked-determined interest rate, competitive exchange rate, trade liberalization, FDI inflow liberalization, privatization, elimination of restrictive terms and the protection of property rights) that are taught to be a “standard” reform package. Since its initiation, the concept “Washington Consensus” has attained a second meaning that is sometimes called neo-liberalism or market fundamentalism where markets have bigger roles while governments have limited roles. Especially with this second and broader formulation Washington Consensus has been the target of individuals and groups’ tough criticisms seeing it as the way to open less developed countries to MNCs and the investments of their owners in the first world economies. These criticisms often refer to 1999-2002 Argentina economic crises where they think the policies of Washington Consensus are defective because Argentina applied most of the policies recommended by the Consensus. Many trade liberalization critics like Noam Chomsky, Susan George and Naomi Klein denote the Washington Consensus as the gate of exploitation of the labor markets of under-developed countries by the firms of developed countries. The decreases in the tariffs and trade restrictions let the free movement of goods according to market among countries, but because of tight visa applications labor does not move freely. This creates an economic climate that goods are produced in under developed countries with low labor cost and then exported to prosperous first world economies with high mark-ups taken by MNCs. Criticisms claim that the workers in the third world economies are poor; although they take higher wages than the ones before trade liberalization, these wages are melting with inflation. While the owners of MNCs get richer, the workers in the first world economies become unemployed. Some criticisms or all of them are denied by the advocates of Washington Consensus as a result of some realizations. For example the inflation rates are at its lowest level in recent years. Workers of the factories established by foreign capital earn more and have better working conditions than those working in domestic firms. In most countries of Latin America the economic growth is at its highest levels and the debt services are at its lowest level relative to the economy. Despite these macroeconomic developments, poverty and inequality are high in Latin America. Nearly 2 people out of 3 have daily incomes below $2. Again one third of the population lacks electricity and sanitation and presumably 10 million children suffer from malnutrition.
2 3.2. Opponents of Globalization: Anti-Globalist Movement
In his speech at the University of Houston the Nobel Prize winner Rigoberta Manchu said “Globalization –the intensification of capital and particularly communication systems- affect the life of not only the indigenous but also the poor people. When one talks about free trade, he/she does not talk about small and medium sized commercial sectors but rather huge monopolies. Anti-globalists focus not on the figures like GDP that are announced by the WB and its derivatives but on the indices like Happy Planet Index calculated by New Economics Foundation. This index focuses on interrelated vital consequences like social resolution, death of democracy, fast and extensive deterioration of environment, spread of new diseases, increasing poverty and alienation. The organization that is at the position of the representative of anti-globalist movement is the World Social Forum (WSF). WSF is a meeting arranged by the members of anti-globalization or alter-globalization movement annually in order to coordinate world campaigns, share and refine organizing strategies, and to inform each other about movements around the world and their issues. Its motto is “Another world is possible”. It tends to meet in January when its “great capitalist rival”, the WEF is meeting in Davos, Switzerland. WSF has encouraged the organizing of many regional social forums, i.e. European, Asian and Mediterranean Social Forums, and many local and national social forums such as Turkish, Liverpool and Boston Social Forums. WSF defines itself and its mission in its charter of principles. According to the charter the Forum is and open platform to everyone who contributes to the exchange of ideas, proposals, experiences and inter-linkages for effective action in a democratic environment. It is universal. It refuses the process of globalization that serves the interests of MNCs. It aims to unite world non-governmental organizations but it is not a representative of such organizations. No one is authorized with the representation of the Forum. The organizations that attend Forum meetings can freely declare their ideas. The Forum has a plural structure and open to differences provided that they respect the principles of the Forum; it is an organization that does not have religious, statist, military or biased dimensions. The Forum contradicts all repressive economies, views of development and history and the usage of these as a repression factor by governments. It also contradicts the racist, sexist and environment pollutant effects of capitalist globalization. It encourages national and international linkages among organizations and social movements in order to ease the achievement of its goals. It allows local to global movements by its participants. Besides WSF, there are other anti-globalist organizations. Their globalization oppositions vary in terms of scale and content. The major of these movements are: International Forum on Globalization (IFG): It is an establishment constituted by activists, economists, scholars and researchers that analyses and criticizes the cultural, social, politic and environmental effects of economic globalization and runs north-south research and is instructive. It was established in 1994. The most important criticism of the organization is the lack of criticism for “free trade” and “neo-liberalism” or the institutions and treaties such as World Trade Organization (WTO), IMF and North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). IFG encourages more equal, democratic and ecologic economies that can be alternative to neo-liberalism or to globalization. In its alternative search, the Forum highlights living democracy, supporting local, ecologic sustainability, joint heritage, diversity, human rights, business and life, food security, equity and precaution principle. Besides, the Forum claims that the institutions of globalization, IMF, WTO and WB are under legitimacy crisis. People’s Global Action (PGA): It is an organization formed by anti-global movements from all continents in February 1998 in Geneva. The movement defines itself as anti-capitalist beyond neo-liberal opponent. Movement defines itself as an opponent of the hegemony of capitalism, imperialism, discrimination, racism and transnational capital in the documents of rules, manifesto and organizational principles. In this framework, the movement has a more radical attitude than other organizations. CorpWatch (CW): The organization was first established in 1996 under the name of Transnational Resource & Action Center (TRAC) and then in March 2001 took the name, CorpWatch. The organization drew attention with the analyses of poor working conditions of Nike in Vietnam and Enron before its crash, and firms that make profit from wars. Organization defines itself as globalization opponent in the subjects of human rights, social justice, environmental sustainability, peace, negative economic realizations, corporate transparency and accountability. Friends of the Earth (FE): The organization which was established in 1971 mostly deals with environmental problems. Organization has some targets about climate change, recycling, energy-saving houses, organic agriculture and the protection of nature. Organization runs with the ideas of “there is tomorrow”, “everyone gets a fair share” and “change the rules for a better economy”. In this framework, the organization opposes enterprises and globalization in case they affect environment negatively.
4. Theories of International Trade
International trade deals with good, service and payment flows among countries and the policies that regulate these flows and their national wealth effects. In short, international trade deals with physical good exchange among countries and the problems arisen from these transactions; international finance deals with the policies that regulate foreign trade markets, balance of payments and imbalances in the payments. Theory of international trade can be accepted as the expansion of the theory of economics so that it covers particular problems arisen from international trade. The theory of international trade academically was firstly discussed by Adam Smith and his famous book shortly known as Wealth of Nations in 1776. Smith explained classical trade theory and showed that trade is profitable for both sides trading. The win-win character depicted by Smith contradicts the then prevailing view. The prevailing view until Smith’s theory was Mercantilism. According to Mercantilist perception “wealth of nations” is measured with precious metals, gold and silver, and with productive capacity countries have. Therefore each nation desires the highest amount of gold and perceives export as beneficial but imports (except imports of raw materials) as harmful. Therefore trade is a win-lose game. While exporters gain, importers lose. Hence the win-win perception of Smith’s absolute advantage is of great importance.
1 4.1. Smith and Ricardo: Classical View
The first scientific steps of the theory of international trade were taken by Adam Smith (1776, The Wealth of Nations: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes) and David Ricardo (1817, On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation). They have some assumptions in doing so. They are: Real sector and monetary changes are independent of each other (neutrality of money). All the prices (and foreign exchange rates) are elastic and determined under perfect competition. The amount of the factors of production is constant and all the factors are fully utilized (full-employment). Factors of production are mobile within countries but immobile among countries. Level of technology (therefore production functions) is same within a country but may vary among countries. Consumer tastes are constant and international trade does not affect tastes. The distribution of income is constant.
There are no trade barriers in terms of transportation, knowledge and communication. Smith think that total wealth of the world is not constant, foreign trade can increase the wealth of both parties –not just one- therefore the wealth of world through the productivity increase of world recourses by division of labor and specialization and with the help of assumptions tries to explain international trade with absolute advantage theory. Smith claims that a country that can produce more output with one unit of labor has an absolute advantage in that good. For example, if Turkey it will be beneficial for both parties that Germany specializes in steel production and Turkey in wheat production and trade with each other because Germany produces 1 unit of wheat with a cost of 2.5 units of steel. However, Turkey can produce 1 unit of wheat with a cost of only 0.5 unit of steel. Therefore an international trade with a price of 1 unit of wheat=1.5 units of steel will be profitable for both parties. On the other hand Ricardo claims that absolute advantage theory constrains international trade, it can not explain the trade when one country has absolute advantages in the production of both goods; instead he developed comparative advantage theory. Accordingly, if Turkey can produce only 10 units of steel or 40 units of wheat with one unit of labor while Germany can produce 50 units of steel or wheat, Smith claims that Germany has absolute advantage in the production of both goods and there won’t be trade, but Ricardo claims that even in this case trade will be beneficial for both parties. Germany can produce 1 unit of wheat with a cost 1 unit of steel. On the other hand Turkey produces 1 unit of wheat with a cost of 0.25 unit of steel, that is to say Turkey can produce wheat with a comparatively lower cost. In such a case an international trade with a price of 1 unit of wheat=0.6 unit of steel will be profitable for both parties. Classical trade theory has been criticized because of its simplifying assumptions. Although they are aware of the factors of production except labor, namely capital and natural classical economists choose to perceive natural resources as endowment and capital as accumulated labor. Therefore classical trade theory is based on labor theory of value and excludes other factors of production. Another criticism is that classical trade theory covers supply-side analysis but not the demand-side. Besides it lacks technologic developments, mobility of the factors of production, product differentiation and imperfect competition that contemporary theories cover.
2 4.2. Neo-Classical Theories of Trade
Neo-classical economists by using the concept of “opportunity cost” instead of labor theory value that contains other factors together with labor have revised the model of Ricardo. According to this theory production is the result of all the factors used together. Therefore, cost which is the reverse of productivity is the sum of resources used to produce 1 unit of good and is calculated by adding up all the monetary values of factors used. Opportunity cost of a good is the amount of the foregone production of other good for the increase in the first good by 1 unit. Accepting that more than one factor involve in the production process it becomes impossible to make a comparison in terms of individual factor productivities between countries because when all the factors are used in the production simultaneously, it is impossible to measure the productivity of one factor by abstracting it from other factors. Production is the result of collective contributions of all the factors used. Therefore individual factor productivities can not be measured but the collective productivity of them. As a result, with the opportunity cost analysis it is shown that international specializations can not be determined with the comparison of individual factor productivities. In neo-classical framework the comparison is done by production cost. The theory adds up a pricing such as 1 unit of wheat=€30 and 1 unit of steel=€10 behind the final figure of 1 unit of wheat=3 units of steel and then reaches to opportunity cost. Neo-classical trade theory analyzes production capacities and opportunity costs through transformation curves and demand conditions through indifference curves. On the other hand neo-classical trade theory can not explain different domestic prices among countries. This defect has been debugged by the contributions of Heckscher and Ohlin, Heckscher-Ohlin Theory. According to the theory a country has comparative advantage in the production of the good that necessitates the factor that the country has abundantly. From Heckscher-Ohlin model which is also known as Factor Endowment Theory the theories of Factor Price Equalization, Income Distribution and Rybczynski have been derived. Factor price equalization theory claims that free trade reveals the same results with the factor markets that equalize the factor prices under perfect international factor mobility even with imperfect factor mobility. Firstly, Heckscher claims that factor prices equate with free trade then Ohlin revised absolute equality as a tendency toward equality and finally Samuelson analytically proved factor price equalization through free trade. Stolper and Samuelson by contradicting the Ricardo’s most widely-accepted idea for more than a century “free trade is beneficial and protectionism is harmful for all in the country” introduced the foreign trade-related income distribution theory. According to the theory, free trade is beneficial for the factor used intensively in the export sectors and protectionism is beneficial for the factors used in import-substitution sectors. In other words, although an economy suffers from protectionism, people working in the import-substitution sector benefit it. In sum, free trade is beneficial for the abundant factor of the country and protectionism for the scarce factor. Rybczynski theory, which is derived from Heckscher-Ohlin theory and analyzes the production results of the changes in factor supply, betrays that in a two-good, two-factor and full-employment model when the supply of a factor increases, the production of the good that necessitates this factor intensively increases and the production of the other good that necessitates the other factor intensively decreases because of factor transfers between the sectors. Although neo-classical trade theory introduces opportunity cost to the theory and there are the theories of Heckscher-Ohlin, Stolper-Samuelson and Rybczynski that complement the theory, it has been criticized because of its deficiencies. The most important of these criticisms is the Leontief Paradox. Leontief developed the input-output table technique in order to test factor endowment theory and by forming “representative commodity bales” he analyzed 1947 foreign trade data of USA. However, he found the result that the USA which was the most capital intensive country in the world exports labor-intensive goods and imports capital-intensive goods. This result is named as Leontief Paradox and caused the birth of a new literature.
3 4.3. Alternatives
As a result of the debates on factor endowment that are created by Leontief Paradox, new theories have been produced since 1960s in order to explain international trade. Skilled-Labor Theory: Authors like Keesing and Kenen point that most part of the international trade between industrialized countries can be explained by the differences in skilled-labor. According to the theory, countries that are abounding in vocational or skilled-labor in some specific sectors mostly specialize in the production of goods that require these features. On the other hand, countries that have unskilled labor abundantly have advantages in the production of goods that requires unskilled labor. Technology-Gap Theory: The theory that emphasizes the imitation process was suggested by Posner in 1961. According to the theory the countries that invent a new good or production process become the first exporter of that good. In the course of time after technology transfers, imitation or the end of property rights the good is produced by other countries and because of low labor costs and natural resource advantages these countries produce with lower costs than the innovator country. In this way the good starts to be exported by less-developed countries. The innovator country imports it as she can not compete with these countries. Best example for the case is that once the number 1 exporter of textile, United Kingdom is now a net exporter of textiles. Product Life Cycle Theory: Theory which emphasizes standardization process was developed by Vernon in 1966 and is a generalized and enhanced version of the technology-gap theory. As mentioned in the theories of FDI part, it has 5 stages and the innovator country that invents a new product and standardizes it becomes a net importer at the end of fifth stage. In other words, product life cycle theory tires to explain dynamic comparative advantage for the new product and production process instead of the static comparative advantage explanation of Heckscher-Ohlin model. Preference Similarity Theory: The hypothesis that is developed by Swedish economist Linder in 1961 deals with the trade of non-homogenous industrial goods. According to this view the trade of goods depends not on the production costs but on the similarity of taste and preferences, that is to say on demand conditions. The basic factor that determines the taste and preferences is relative income level. According to Linder, firms in a country produce the goods that are demanded by the majority of public and have a large market. As firms produce in order to cover domestic demand they get experience and efficiency in the production of that good; later on these goods are exported to the countries that have similar taste and preferences or more broadly to the countries that have close income levels. On the other hand the demand of low or high income individuals who have different taste and preferences are supplied with importation from the countries that have similar taste with them. According to this view which is also known as “Over-lapping demands” the trade of industrial goods will be intensive among those countries that have similar preferences and income levels. The Linder’s theory has not been supported much because it can not explain the trade of industrial goods that do not have domestic market or in other words that are produced only for export. Theory of Economies of Scale: In some goods average production cost depends on the scale or volume of the production. If average costs decrease with the scale of production, there is decreasing costs and increasing returns to scale. In the factor endowment theory the assumption of constant returns to scale prevails. In case of increasing returns because of economies of scale, profitable trade arises even when both parties are identical in every aspect. This is another type of trade that Heckscher-Ohlin theory can not explain. Economies of scale, besides the cost advantage of large enterprises over small ones, cause the formation of imperfect competition. Monopolistic Competition Theory: In real life, especially the industrial goods are not homogenous contrary to the assumption in factor endowment theory because goods are different in terms of components, usage, outlook or at least brands. World trade is traditionally thought as the exchange of goods that are produced by non-similar or completely different sectors. However, currently the majority of trade occurs between the differentiated goods of the same sector. This is called intra-industry trade (bi-directional trade). Monopolistic competition theory explains the case of bi-directional trade of industrial goods through economies of scale. The idea of utilizing economies of scale forces firms to produce one or a few kinds of goods instead of various kinds or types of goods. In fact, the cause of this is the possibility of substitution among differentiated goods and the effort of firms to decrease costs for international competition. As production intensifies on few kinds or type specialization follows, more efficient machines are used and economies of scale is exploited. Thereby countries become exporters of that product and import other types of the good from other countries.
4 4.4. New Trade Theories
The theories that are called new trade theories are in fact the alternative theories themselves. New trade theories are those that internalize the concepts of scale, network, innovation and global competition. Costs of a firm may be decreased by two ways. As the scale of production increases per unit fixed cost will decrease and the decrease in variable costs will boost it (internal scale economies); as the scale of the sector where a firm operates, the costs of that firm will decrease and the chance of it to find skilled-labor that enables quality inputs and exchange of experiences will increase (external scale economies). Firms can avoid the factor endowment constraint of the country through innovation. Technologic progress and facilitator effect of R&D firms on innovation have converter effects on factor endowment, because knowledge has been included among the factors of production. Networking enables firms to internalize the experiences attained through knowledge exchange, fast experiences, learning by looking and learning by doing. The global competitiveness of firms depends not only on national factor endowment or the structure of the firm, but to a larger spectrum of variables that are mentioned in the Porter’s diamond such as factor conditions, demand conditions, related and collateral sectors and the strategies, structures and competitiveness of firms.
5. Regulating Globalization and Internationalization
The acceleration of globalization in the post-2nd World War period is the result of the plans of economists, businessmen and politicians that recognized the negative effects of protectionism and poor international economic integration. The effects of these people resulted in the Conference of Bretton Woods and the foundation of various institutions aiming the promotion of growth and the management of negative effects and the globalization process. These institutions are the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank-WB) and the IMF. Thereafter General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) was signed in order to eliminate the barriers for international trade. In the Uruguay Round (1984-1995) the WTO was established for the solution of commercial disputes and for the construction of a standard platform for trade. Besides many bi- or multi-lateral trade treaties such as the Maastricht Treaty and the NAFTA has been signed whose aims are to decrease tariffs and eliminate trade barriers. There are certain factors that accelerate and widen the domain of globalization. These are: Huge international organizations that desire to affect and if possible control the politic developments in the world; e.g. the United Nations, International pacts – large scale treaties covering many countries; e.g. the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Transnational economic associations that are large scaled and have many members; e.g. the European Union, the North American Association, the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, MNCs that operate in more than one country and are business, manufacture and trade centers, banks and corporations, Certain socio-politic movements that are called international trends and affect almost continents, countries and people deeply; e.g. ethnic nationalism, fundamentalism, feminism, ecologic movements. With the light of these developments and factors, the international organizations and integrations have emerged. These institutions and agreements are crucial as they manage or direct the process of globalization.
1 5.1. International Organizations
At the national level the stabilizing institutions are social and financial safety nets. At the international level they are the WTO, the IMF, the Basel Committee of Banking Supervisors, the WB, the OECD and others.
1 5.1.1. International Monetary Fund - IMF
The IMF is an international organization of 185 member countries. It was established in 1944 to promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability, and orderly exchange arrangements; to foster economic growth and high levels of employment; and to provide temporary financial assistance to countries to help ease balance of payments adjustment which in turn means the regulation of globalization at individual country level. Some countries view globalization as a process that is beneficial—a key to future world economic development—and also inevitable and irreversible. Others regard it with hostility, even fear, believing that it increases inequality within and between nations, threatens employment and living standards and thwarts social progress. Globalization offers extensive opportunities for truly worldwide development but it is not progressing evenly. Some countries are becoming integrated into the global economy more quickly than others. Countries that have been able to integrate are seeing faster growth and reduced poverty. Outward-oriented policies brought dynamism and greater prosperity to much of East Asia, transforming it from one of the poorest areas of the world 40 years ago. And as living standards rose, it became possible to make progress on democracy and economic issues such as the environment and work standards. Therefore, according to IMF, encouraging this trend, not reversing it, is the best course for promoting growth, development and poverty reduction. On the other hand, the crises in the emerging markets in the 1990s have made it quite evident that the opportunities of globalization do not come without risks—risks arising from volatile capital movements and the risks of social, economic, and environmental degradation created by poverty. This is not a reason to reverse direction, but for all concerned to embrace policy changes to build strong economies and a stronger world financial system that will produce more rapid growth and ensure that poverty is reduced. In this framework the IMF advises individual countries to apply the following policy recommendations in order to manage the process efficiently and benefit it: Macroeconomic stability to create the right conditions for investment and saving, Outward oriented policies to promote efficiency through increased trade and investment, Structural reform to encourage domestic competition,
Strong institutions and an effective government to foster good governance, Education, training, and research and development to promote productivity, External debt management to ensure adequate resources for sustainable development. The IMF’s control and regulation process involves surveillance (through visits to gather information, discussions with government and central bank officials and annual reports), financial assistance (through Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Exogenous Shocks Facility, Stand-by Agreements, Extended Fund Facility, Supplemental Reserve Facility, Compensatory Financing Facility and Emergency Assistance) and technical assistance (through staff missions of limited duration sent from headquarters, or the placement of experts and/or resident advisors for periods ranging from a few weeks to a few years and in the form of technical and diagnostic studies, training courses, seminars, workshops, and "on-line" advice and support).
2 5.1.2. World Bank - WB
Since its inception in 1944, the WB has expanded from a single institution to a closely associated group of five development institutions. The WB’s mission evolved from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) as facilitator of post-war reconstruction and development to the present day mandate of worldwide poverty alleviation in conjunction with its affiliate, the International Development Association. The WB is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world and is made up of two unique development institutions owned by 185 member countries - the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) (There are also three more institutions closely associated with the WB, namely, International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)). Each institution plays a different but supportive role in the WB’s mission of global poverty reduction and the improvement of living standards. The IBRD focuses on middle income and creditworthy poor countries, while IDA focuses on the poorest countries in the world. Together the WB provides low-interest loans, interest-free credit, grants to developing countries for education, health, infrastructure, communications and many other purposes and also provides analysis, advice and information to the member countries. The WB does not operate for profit. According to WB, globalization offers incredible opportunities. Yet exclusion, grinding poverty, and environmental damage create dangers. The ones that suffer most are those who have the least to start with – indigenous peoples, women in developing countries, the rural poor, Africans, and their children. Therefore, the World Bank Group assists countries to help themselves by catalyzing the capital and policies through a mix of ideas and experience, development of private market opportunities, and support for good governance and anti-corruption. The WB’s vision is to contribute to an inclusive and sustainable globalization - to overcome poverty, enhance growth with care for the environment, and create individual opportunity and hope and to advance ideas about international projects and agreements on trade, finance, health, poverty, education, and climate change so that they can benefit all, especially the poor seeking new opportunities. The process includes fund generation, loans, grants, analytic and advisory services and capacity building.
3 5.1.3. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development - OECD
The forerunner of the OECD was the Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC). The OEEC was formed in 1947 to administer American and Canadian aid under the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. Its headquarters were established in Paris in 1949. The OECD took over from the OEEC in 1961. Since then, its missions have been to: Support sustainable economic growth,
Raise living standards,
Maintain financial stability,
Assist other countries' economic development,
Contribute to growth in world trade.
In order to contribute to the development of the world economy, the OECD’s focus has progressively broadened to include a growing number of other countries, in addition to its 30 members who are committed to democracy and the market economy. It now shares its expertise and accumulated experience with more than 70 developing and emerging market economies. The OECD view on globalization may be best-defined with the speech of Australian Treasurer Peter Costello at The Annual OECD Summit, 2000 which states “We don’t have a choice as to whether or not to stop globalization. Our choice is how to manage it and how to manage it for the benefit of our citizens.” In this framework, it could be said that the OECD views globalization as an inevitable process and just aims to regulate and manage the process.
4 5.1.4. World Trade Organization – WTO
The WTO has 151 members, accounting for over 97% of world trade and is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations that is the main catalyst of the process of globalization. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. Currently there are WTO agreements on goods, services and intellectual property rights. The GATT is the principle rule-book for trade in goods. The WTO also provides dispute settlement and policy reviews. Main functions of the organization are as follows: Administering trade agreements,
Acting as a forum for trade negotiations,
Settling trade disputes,
Reviewing national trade policies,
Assisting developing countries in trade policy issues, through technical assistance and training programs, Cooperating with other international organizations.
As the main purposes of the organization are to promote freer trade, fair competition and encourage development and economic reform, it is one of the main contributors of the process of economic globalization.
5 5.1.5. United Nations – UN
Another organization regulating globalization is the UN. Its roots go back to the International Telecommunication Union, 1865. The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942. Today the UN has 192 member states. The organization is central to global efforts to solve problems that challenge humanity. Cooperating in this effort are more than 30 affiliated organizations, known together as the UN system. Day in and day out, the UN and its family of organizations work to promote respect for human rights, protect the environment, fight against disease and reduce poverty. With more than 70% of the work of the UN system, one of the UN's central mandates is the promotion of higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development. In order to achieve these goals, some tools are as follows: Grant free access to their markets for good produced in poor countries, Implement debt relief program, including cancellation of all official debts of the heavily indebted poor countries, in return for those countries making demonstrable commitments to poverty reduction, Grant more generous development assistance,
Work with pharmaceutical companies and other partners to develop an effective and affordable vaccine against HIV, Make special provision for the needs of Africa.
2 5.2. International Integrations
International agreements that promote international trade are significant mediums of globalization. The most well-known integration is the European Union which constitutes integration besides a free-trade agreement or area. There are also other agreements which increase international trade. These kinds of integrations, whether free trade agreements or integrations, foster the globalization process by increasing trade, exchange of goods, services and labor and consequently cultures.
1 5.2.1. European Union - EU
Established in 1951 as the European Coal and Steel Community by the six founding members, the EU chronologically has established a common market, common policies, a single market and finally a monetary union. Today, the EU has 27 member states and acts in a wide range of policy areas - economic, social, regulatory and financial - where its actions are beneficial to the member states. These include: Solidarity policies (also known as cohesion policies) in regional, agricultural and social affairs and Innovation policies, which bring state-of-the-art technologies to fields such as environmental protection, research and development (R&D) and energy. Europe’s mission in the 21st century is to:
Provide peace, prosperity and stability for its people,
Overcome the divisions on the continent,
Ensure that its people can live in safety,
Promote balanced economic and social development,
Meet the challenges of globalization and preserve the diversity of the peoples of Europe, Uphold the values that Europeans share, such as sustainable development and a sound environment, respect for human rights and the social market economy. As a regional integration the EU is ahead of a free trade agreement or a free trade association. Therefore it is not a catalyst for globalization but the globalization itself in all areas and European integration will continue in the fields in which the member states consider it is in their best interests to work together within the traditional EU framework (on issues like trade, globalization, the single market, regional and social development, research and development, measures to promote growth and jobs and many others).
2 5.2.2. Asia-Pacific Economic Co-Operation - APEC
Since its inception in 1989, the APEC region has consistently been the most economically dynamic part of the world. Today APEC has 21 members. APEC works in three broad areas to meet the Bogor Goals of free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific by 2010 for developed economies and 2020 for developing economies. Known as APEC's 'Three Pillars', APEC focuses on three key areas: Trade and Investment Liberalization (reduces and eventually eliminates tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade and investment) Business Facilitation (reduces the costs of business transactions, improves access to trade information and aligns policy and business strategies to facilitate growth, and free and open trade) Economic and Technical Cooperation (proves training and cooperation to build capacities in all APEC Member Economies) The outcomes of these three areas enable APEC member economies to strengthen their economies by pooling resources within the region and achieving efficiencies. As a trade boosting integration, APEC is one of the reputable integrations that foster globalization.
3 5.2.3. North American Free Trade Agreement - NAFTA
The NAFTA is the trade bloc in North America created by the NAFTA and its two supplements, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC), whose members are Canada, Mexico, and the United States. It came into effect on January 1, 1994 (Mexico started full implementation in 2008) and it remains the largest trade bloc in the world in terms of combined GDP of its members. NAFTA was an expansion of the earlier Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement of 1988. NAFTA eliminated the majority of tariffs on products traded among the USA, Canada and Mexico, and gradually phased out other tariffs over a 15-year period. Restrictions were to be removed from many categories, including motor vehicles, computers, textiles, and agriculture. The treaty also protects intellectual property rights (patents, copyrights, and trademarks), and outlines the removal of investment restrictions among the three countries. The treaty is trilateral in nature; the terms apply equally to all countries, in which stipulations, tariff reduction phase-out periods, and protection of selected industries, were negotiated on a bilateral basis. Provisions regarding worker and environmental protection were added later as a result of supplemental agreements signed in 1992.
4 5.2.4. European Free Trade Association - EFTA
EFTA is an intergovernmental organization set up for the promotion of free trade and economic integration to the benefit of its four member states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. The Association manages the EFTA Convention; EFTA’s worldwide network of free trade and partnership agreements, and the European Economic Area Agreement (EEA). EFTA Convention is set up in 1960 to provide a framework for the liberalization of trade in goods amongst its member states and updated in 2001 (called the Vaduz Convention). EFTA’s worldwide network of free trade and partnership agreements - consisting of EFTA, EEA, Free Trade Agreement and Joint Declaration of Cooperation plus on-going and potential FTAs - create one of the world's largest networks of free trade partners securing free access to markets of around 440 million consumers. The EEA, which entered into force on 1 January 1994, brings together the 27 EU members and the three EFTA countries - Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway - in a single internal market, referred to as the “Internal Market.” The EEA Agreement provides for the inclusion of EU legislation that covers the four freedoms - the free movement of goods, services, persons and capital - throughout the 30 EEA States. In addition, the Agreement covers co-operation in other important areas such as research and development, education, social policy, the environment, consumer protection, tourism and culture, collectively known as “flanking and horizontal” policies. The Agreement guarantees equal rights and obligations within the Internal Market for citizens and economic operators in the EEA.
5 5.2.5. Others
ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA) was established in 1967 in Bangkok by the five original member countries, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Then Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Cambodia have joint. The ASEAN Declaration states that the aims and purposes of the association are: To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and To promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries in the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) is another agreement which is between countries in Central and South-Eastern Europe. It was originally signed in 1992 by Poland, Hungary, Czech and Slovak Republics and entered into force in 1994. The parties of the CEFTA are: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo. Former parties that left the agreement because of their EU membership are Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. There are a lot of international integrations and free trade agreements in the world. Most of them are in favor of freer trade and therefore economic globalization.
6. Future: Qua Vadis?
Despite the peace settlements signed after 2nd World War, the world entered a cold war process. At the essence of this contention that affected the whole world there were the contradicting economic structures, capitalism and communism. Even the countries who didn’t want to place in any bloc were affected from this structure and for their interest had close relations with both zones. Either capitalist or communist systems, they have developed in different directions with what their ideas and targets promise. Capitalism has developed by accepting material success and wealth as the measure of everything and material satisfaction of human as the basic motive. At the end it was successful but could not share this success with the public. Therefore the individuals that are desired to be rescued are depressed more and left alone. Individuals that feel this depression oriented to other things. On the other hand mercantilist state perception which takes the state as basis and accepts full responsibility of state for the society in order to retrieve equity to everybody disregarded individuals. The public depressed under the power of state and who could not achieve the promised heavens at the end surrendered from the ideals and operability of communism. Therefore in the period of about half a century both economic perception and the cohesive political systems recognized the need of change. Although globalization constitutes an important leg of this change, there is no consensus on the definition and the effects of the concept “globalization”. Public opinion on globalization is polarized due to the advantages and disadvantages of the process. Globalization is perceived as either a cure for all problems or the primary cause of these problems. Globalization is neither a magic cure for the problems of national economies nor a plot for exploitation of workers or despoliation of environment by mega-corporations. Globalization is neither the return of colonialism, nor is it the arrival of world government. Globalization simply means an expansion of the range of possible commercial activities at the most fundamental level. The activities such as buying, selling, producing, borrowing and lending which were restricted by geographic technologic or legal barriers have become practical. Seeking and sorting through the possibilities opened up by globalization will require a great amount of effort, flexibility and change because globalization embodies such a vast and marvelous array of new economic opportunities. Globalization will affect every country and individual both positively and negatively. While positive effects do not bear any threat and are desired by everyone, all the negative effects constitute the basis of anti-globalist movements. The basic item that anti-globalist movements are grounded on is the fact that the negative effects will affect fragile, weak and poor countries and persons first and then the whole mankind. Therefore the world should deliberate on the threats that globalization creates and try to manage the process. In this process the most important function belongs to international institutions. If the future of globalization is analyzed in terms of statistics and world realizations the developing countries of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) have the fastest growing information and communication technologies (ICT) markets in the world and the developments in these five countries have spill-over effects on OECD region. Between 2000 and 2005 with an annual increase over 19% the ICT expenditures reached to $277 billion from $114 billion. Between 2000 and 2006 the annual ICT growth rate of expenditure was 5.6% for the world and only 4.2% for the OECD region and the share of OECD in the world market decreased form 89% to 83%. The highest growth in ICT expenditure was experienced by the developing countries outside the OECD region. ICT expenditure of China that achieved an annual growth rate of 22% in terms of nominal dollars is estimated to be $118 billion in 2005. Excluding China, the highest growth rates belong to 9 non-OECD countries like Russia (25% annually) and India (23%) between 2000 and 2005. the second group pf countries which have high growth rates include Indonesia, South Africa and East European OECD member countries. In these circumstances, it is possible to say that the ICT demand of developing countries like China will continue and consequently the integration of the world economy will increase and globalization will intensify. On the other hand as of 2000 an American consumes 2.1 fold more energy than a German, 12.1 fold than a Colombian, 28.9 fold than an Indian, 127 fold than a Haitian and 395 fold than an Ethiopian. These figures emphasize the inequality among people and this inequality has significant importance for the future of globalization and environment. Divergence of incomes helps to explain the polarization in the world system between the region of peace and the region of chaos. The wealthy zone lives the wax of economic growth and the republican order of liberal tolerance and the technologic innovations that will substitute natural capital usage. Our age is the optimal era for those at the highest parts of income distribution in the prosperous countries. On the other hand in the low and medium income zone, mostly in Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, Russia and in some parts of East Asia, the governance capacity of many countries are stagnant or eroding. The people living in these countries can not find their access to even basic necessities while at the same time see people driving Mercedes – on TV if not outside their own windows. New information technologies produce tools that threaten the stability of societies and crate a lot of unemployed and angry young people that threaten even the stability of the prosperous zone. Economic growth in poor countries often depletes natural resource and therefore future growth potential. More and more people see migration to prosperous zone as the only way of salvation. The importance of the “missing middle” is partly that the three quarter of world population in the third world must get to the first world in order appreciably to raise their incomes. There is not much of a middle world for them to migrate, and in any case average income in the middle world is only 4 times higher than average income in the third world; while average income in the first world is over 9 times higher. As a result, the answer to the question whether the globalization process will create a wealthier world for all or a world that will have greater differences among countries and therefore unrests will be given by the process itself. Good management of the process will increase the chance of first scenario while ignorance or deferment of the problems will increase the risk of second scenario.
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