The modern nation-state is the product of the concept of territorial sovereignty. The independence of a nation-state, in all its endeavors, was a prized possession in the world characterized by colonialism. All a nation-state wanted was independence in its political, social and economic activities. The nationalist sentiments are inherent in successful nation-states. However, the nation-state is less successful in those situations where the population is fragmented between several large groups who do not wish to surrender portions of their different identities in order to produce a national identity. The majority of nation-states with such problems seem to be the artificial creations of war and/or colonialism rather than the product of 'natural' evolution. India, too, is a result of such historical happenings and despite being successful till now, which is surprisingly amazing, has been facing a lot of security threats, both from external and internal sources. India became independent on August 15, 1947 when it was divided into two nations, Republic of India and Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Islam-i Jamhuriya-e Pakistan), divided on religious lines - India being Hindu-dominant but a secular state, whereas Pakistan being Muslim-dominant and an Islamic state. Internally, at the time of independence, India was not divided in states as we see it today. The states were formed by the States Reorganization Act in 1956 where the state boundaries were drawn along linguistic lines. There have been many addition and deletion to the list since then. Presently the Indian structure has 28 states 6 Union Territories (UTs) and 1 National Capital Territory (NCT). The states are (in alphabetical order): Andhra Pradesh (earlier, part of Madras), Arunachal Pradesh(earlier UT, state since 1987), Assam (renamed Asom), Bihar, Chhattisgarh (created out of Madhya Pradesh, in 2000), Goa (occupied in 1961, later UT, state since 1987), Gujarat (state since 1960, bifurcated from Bombay), Haryana (created out of Punjab, in 1966), Himachal Pradesh (earlier UT, state since 1971), Jammu & Kashmir (special status until 1957, since then state), Jharkhand (created out of Bihar, in 2000), Karnataka (earlier Mysore), Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra (state since 1960, bifurcated from Bombay), Manipur (earlier UT, state since 1972), Meghalaya (earlier UT, state since 1972), Mizoram (earlier UT, state since 1987), Nagaland (earlier UT, state since 1963), Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim (annexed as state in 1975), Tamil Nadu (earlier Madras), Tripura (earlier UT, state since 1972), Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal (created out of Uttar Pradesh, in 2000), and West Bengal. The Union Territories are (in alphabetical order): Andaman & Nicobar, Chandigarh (UT since 1966), Dadra & Nagar Haveli (since 1961), Daman & Diu (since 1987), Lakshadweep, and Puducherry (since 1962). And Delhi (formed in 1991) is the National Capital Territory. Externally, the country has 15106.7 km of land border running through 92 districts in 17 states and a coastline of 7516.6 km touching 13 states and union territories. India’s total number of islands is 1197 which accounts to a stretch of 2094 km additional border or coastline. Major international boundaries India share are International Border (IB) and Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan; Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China; among others. India’s external boundaries have been of a shifting nature, redrawn quite a number of times, mainly after wars with Pakistan in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999; and with China in 1962. Excluding Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Delhi and Haryana, all other states of India have one or more international borders or coastline and can be regarded as frontline states which are very much important from the border management point of view. Below is a list of the length of India’s land borders with neighboring countries. Management of Borders in India
Border management is...
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