Internal & External Factors
The four functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Planning occurs within these functions of a business, and it helps to deliver strategic value. Organizing builds a dynamic organization and leading helps to mobilize people. Controlling is part of learning and changing as an organization grows. All four functions of management are key to effective management. Internal and external factors influence the decision-making process which in turn affects management. Competitive landscape is constantly changing; therefore, managers must consider people and businesses around the world. Globalization, technology, innovation, diversity, and ethics require comprehensive planning, they are essential in every aspect of management. Apple is an organization that uses strategic planning and organizational tools successfully to manage and market technology. In this paper I will explain how the internal and external factors affect the four functions of management within Apple. I will also provide specific examples of globalization, technology, innovation, diversity, and ethics. Globalization
Globalization is an external, driving force that has a major impact on the way managers run an organization. Globalization is the result of the notable increase of cross-border trade, investments, cultural exchange, population growth, and emergent economies (New World Encyclopedias, 2008). Globalization directly affects the four functions of management, or core competencies of management. These core competencies are the basics of management: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (Bateman & Snell, 2011). Globalization causes events, or situations to take place within an organization to which managers have no direct control over. This external factor causes organizations such as Apple Inc. to update and monitor the company's business plan concerning these core competencies of management. Apple Inc. is a multinational corporation that designs and sells computer software, and hardware. The tech giant is best known for the Macintosh product line of computers, the iPod, iPhone, and the iPad (Yahoo finance, 2012). The sector this company services causes the need for Apple to stay competitive. The way Apple stays competitive is by tapping into the globalized market. Apple has more than 364 retail stores in more than 13 countries. Apple manages more than 60,000 full-time employees worldwide and is the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization (Yahoo finance, 2012). Apple can keep a competitive edge on the market because management carefully plans, organizes, leads, and controls the organizational planning process using informational resources. Informational resources are data collections used to analyze the market in an effective manner (The Free Dictionary, 2012). Managers analyze competition, customer behavior, industry outlook, demographics, economics, and political interference during the different levels of planning. Managers include informational resources to assist in the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling process. Managers analyze who the competition is, the needs, and wants of the customer, if the industry is local, national, or global. They analyze population and diversity change, and whether the economy is in a peak, or downturn. As managers set plans and goals within an organization, they analyze these data collections, and plan accordingly. Managers can readily access this information through informational resources, or data collections because of globalization. Organizations that identify globalization as an external factor, and use the effects of globalization in a positive manner can keep a competitive advantage on the market. Otherwise globalization can have a negative impact on the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling aspects of management.
Technology is an internal factor that causes management to...
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