– a Comparison between Japan and
International Tourism Management
People are an organization’s most important resource and asset. Good management of individuals and the workforce is therefore crucial to attain the organizational goals and objectives (Foot and Hook, 2008).
However, these characteristics are not static but constantly changing, including shifts to values and lifestyles, families, education and health. What at one time might have seemed remote from HRM is now a central aspect because global, social and political changes affect all economic activities through marketing opportunities and threats, affecting employment, costs, productivity and the social climate of relationship (Tyson, 2006). To be successful in HRM, it is important to understand the significant differences of the individuals and to cope with the constant changes to help organizations to adjust to the massive social, economic political and technological changes that influence people and consequently the way people have to be managed (Tyson, 2006). Other then often assumed, individual cultural background is not inherited but “man-made, confirmed by others, conventionalized, and passed on for younger people or newcomers to learn. It provides people with a meaningful context in which to meet, to think about themselves and to face the outer world" (Trompenaars, 1993: 24). Successful international operating businesses necessarily have to take into consideration all possible consequences of cultural differences on the management, the individual work attitude, the communication and negotiations (Rothlauf, 2006). It is therefore not surprisingly that especially human resource managers of international operating companies require a profound knowledge of people’s individual behaviour depending on their cultural background.
Good HRM is especially important in the service industry, where the first
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