What is the changing pattern of inter-racial and intra-racial inequality in Cape Town or Johannesburg? What can the theories about deindustrialisation in the USA and Europe bring to our understanding of this pattern of inequality? This assignment is aimed at discussing the pattern of inter-racial and intra-racial inequalities in Johannesburg and the essay will discuss theories about deindustrialisation in the USA and Europe that will help us understand the patterns of inequality. The assignment will be looking at whether Johannesburg is a polarised or professionalised city in order to understand the movement of the society and its spatial movement. The assignment will be arguing that Johannesburg is Intra-racial; it will do this by using US cities to help explain why it is so. The way in which people’s jobs are shaped in cities is understood in “terms of the deindustrialisation of urban economies”(Borel-Saladin and Crankshaw,2009:645), deindustrialisation has transformed the state of employment, by taking part in the decline of manufacturing jobs and has contributed to the total rise in service jobs comparative. Deindustrialisation has also resulted in the proportional and total increase in the amount of managerial and professional jobs (Borel-Saladin and Crankshaw, 2009). The authors state how some people have argued that deindustrialisation contribute to the total development of low-skilled jobs because service jobs require more low-skilled, low-wage employees than the manufacturing industry because those services jobs are at hotels and retail shops where a person can do anything, a low skilled person can be a janitor or they can pack things in a shop. These people have concluded that this leads to the polarisation of the occupation and income structure (Borel-Saladin and Crankshaw, 2009). The spatial movement of people in the US is explained by stating the reasons why people move out of the inter-city and to the suburbs and what are the things that contribute to this movement. There is still a long way to go, for there to be equality and desegregation in the suburbs but there has been a dramatic change since the US segregation period. Today there are more and more black people living in integrated neighbourhoods or suburbs, where black and white people interact with each other. But the inter-cities are a different situation where there isn’t as much of an interaction between blacks and whites. Black people could move to the suburbs because they could now afford to move there because of they now had improved education which allowed them to have better paying jobs and they could also now move to the suburbs because they weren’t segregated against which meant they could move around freely and could live anywhere they choose to. But the authors argue that having money and a good education is not the only contributor of people moving to the suburbs but it also has to do with people’s preference, whether they want to live there or not. It was discovered that black people preferred to live in a suburb that divided 50/50 racially and white people were recorded as saying they wouldn’t mind living in a suburb with only 15% black people (Clark,2007). While Deindustrialisation resulted in a lot of people being unemployed of these people most of whom where black people who worked in the factories in the inner-cities, deindustrialisation resulted in the closing down of blue collar jobs and a rise in white collar jobs which mostly employed people with a higher education and who were high-skilled and jobs requiring low-skill and no education were demolished and those people without an education were left behind and without a job. Deindustrialisation of the economy resulted in the moving of factories to the suburbs where they could find cheapest land to establish their business and they could have access to the people they needed to improve their business. Most white people had the mobility to move to the suburbs to follow the...
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