Sub-soiling is essential especially to hard pan layer because it will help the roots penetrate deep and be able to explore and obtain water and nutrients from larger volume of soil. Hard span obstructs root's downward proliferation and restricts root growth of crops (of crops that have vertical root growth). With sub-soiling, the needed soil depth, at least 80cm will be met . With sub-soiling, we can break hard pan without inversion and with less disturbance of top soil.
2.) Show that a triangular system has 15% more plants than a square system using the same distance of planting by computing the number of plants in each system.
If we give certain values for the Area (A) and planting distance (s) as A = 1 000m2 and s = 5 m 2 then substituting these values to the respective formulas for number of plants in each system we will have the following:
For Triangular System: Triangular System= S/d2 x 0.866
S= Unit surface d= length of the triangle side No. of plants (Np) = A/(s 2x 0.866) = 1 000 m2/(5 m2x 0.866) = 1 000 m 2/4.33 m 2 ≈231 plants
For Square System: S/L2 No. of plants (Np) = A/s2 = 1 000 m2/5 m2 =200 plants231 plants –200 plants = 31 plants(31 plants/ 200 plants) x 100% ≈15%
Based on computation, there were 15% more plants in the triangular system than the square system.
3.) Why should we add well decayed organic matter and basal fertilizer to the soil before transplanting seedlings or grafted plants of perennial crop species?
Because organic matter is closely linked to plant productivity. In case the soil does not contain the nutrients that the crops needed especially seedlings and grafted plants of perennial crop species, the organic matter and fertilizer that were mixed with the soil will immediately fill the need of starting-to-grow crops. Consequently, landscapes with variable organic matter