Intelligent Systems

Topics: Intelligent agent, Homo economicus, Software agent Pages: 12 (2709 words) Published: July 23, 2013
CS 461: Artificial Intelligence

Introduction Introd ction to Intelligent S stems Systems (agents)

Outline
 Agents and environments  Rationality  PEAS
 Performance measure, Actuators, Sensors Environment,

 Environment types  Agent types
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Agents
agent noun: a person or thing that acts … ( (root of Latin agere, to do) g , )

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Agents
act = A t AgentFn(percept) tF ( t) sensors agent fn

actuators
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Agents (Some definitions)
• Agent: anything that can be viewed as p g y g perceiving its g environment through sensors and acting upon through actuators • Percept: refers to the agent’s perceptual inputs at any given instant of time • Percept sequence: complete history of everything the agent has perceived th i d • Agent’s action at any instant of time depends on the percept sequence • Agent function: describes an agent’s behavior • Agent program: implementation of agent function 5

Agents and environments

 The agent function maps from percept histories to actions: [f: P*  A]  The agent program runs on the physical architecture to produce f agent = architecture + program

Vacuum-cleaner world

 Percepts: location and contents e g [A contents, e.g., [A, Dirty]  Actions: Left, Right, Suck, NoOp

Rational agents
 Tabulation of agent functions
 Describes the agent  Infinite !( for most agents) unless bound on percept sequence

 Rational agent
 Does the right thing  Every entry in the table filled correctly

doing the i ht thing is better than doing the d i th right thi i b tt th d i th wrong thi thing what does it mean by right thing? Right action should cause the agent most successful need some ways t measure success d to 8

Tabulation o s p e age t functions abu at o of simple agent u ct o s Percept sequence p q [A, clean] [A, dirty] [B, clean] [B, dirty] [B di t ] [A, clean], [A, clean] [A, clean][A, [A clean][A dirty] …………………………………… [A, clean], [A, clean], [A, clean] Right Action Right Suck Left Suck S k Right Suck

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Performance measures (or, goals)
 Embodies the criterion for success of an agent’s g behavior  Agent generates a sequence of actions according to the percepts it receives  Sequence of actions causes environment to go through a sequence of states  Good performance if sequence desirable

 Does not exist any fixed measure suitable for all  Subjective opinion: asking agent about her own p performance  Risk: agents may be unable to answer or delude

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Performance measures (e a p e) e o a ce easu es (example)
Agent: Vacuum-cleaner Vacuum cleaner  Performance measure: amount of dirt cleaned up in a single eight-hour shift  For rational agent: maximize the performance by cleaning up the dirt, dumping it all on the floor, then g p p g cleaning and so on…  More suitable measure: reward of one point for each clean square at each time step with some penalties for electricity consumption and noise generated l t i it ti d i t d 11

Difficulties
 Same cleanliness can be achieved by two different agents  First agent does mediocre job all the time  Second agent cleans energetically but takes long break

 S Selection of performance measures–not a easy task! f f  Deep philosophical questions !!!!  Reckless life of highs and lows or a safe but humdrum existence??  Economy where everyone lives in moderate economy or one in which some live in plenty while others are poor?? 12

Factors of rational agent and its definition d fi iti
 Factors: acto s
 Performance measure that defines the criterion of success  Agent’s prior knowledge of the environment  Actions that agent can perform g p  Agent’s percept sequence to date  Definition: for each possible sequence, a rational agent should select an action that is expected to maximize its performance measure, given the evidence provided by the percept sequence and whatever built-in knowledge the agent has 13

Rational agents
 Without loss of generality ``goals''...
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