Intellectual Standards

Good Essays
Becoming a Fair-Minded Thinker

Weak versus Strong Critical Thinking

Critical thinking involves basic intellectual skills, but these skills can be used to serve two incompatible ends: self-centeredness or fair-mindedness. As we are learning the basic intellectual skills that critical thinking entails, we can begin to use those skills in a selfish or in a fair-minded way. For example, when students are taught how to recognize mistakes in reasoning (commonly called fallacies), most students see those mistakes principally in the reasoning they already disapprove of rather than in their own reasoning. They develop some proficiency in making their opponent’s thinking look bad.

Liberals see mistakes in the arguments of conservatives; conservatives see mistakes in the arguments of liberals. Believers see mistakes in the thinking of nonbelievers; nonbelievers see mistakes in the thinking of believers. Those who oppose abortion readily see mistakes in the arguments for abortion; those who favor abortion readily see mistakes in the arguments against it.

We call these thinkers weak-sense critical thinkers. We call the thinking “weak” because, though it is working well for the thinker in some respects, it is missing certain important higher-level skills and values of critical thinking. Most significantly, it fails to consider, in good faith, viewpoints that contradict its own viewpoint. It lacks fair-mindedness.

Another traditional name for the weak-sense thinker is found in the word sophist. Sophistry is the art of winning arguments regardless of whether there are obvious problems in the thinking being used. There is a set of lower-level skills of rhetoric, or argumentation, by which one can make poor thinking look good and good thinking look bad. We see this often in unethical lawyers and politicians who are more concerned with winning than with anything else. They use emotionalism and trickery in an intellectually skilled way.

Sophistic

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Satisfactory Essays

    The intellectual standards of critical thinking are the ability to assess one’s own reasoning. To be good at assessment to take apart in thinking, examining and with respect to standard of quality. The following is the list for intellectual standards are clarity, relevance, logicalness, accuracy, depth, significance, precision, breadth, and fairness. The intellectual standards goal is for the goal is for these questions to become spontaneous in thinking that they form a natural part of our inner…

    • 277 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Intellectual

    • 272 Words
    • 2 Pages

    An intellectual is a person who primarily uses intelligence in either a professional or an individual capacity. As a substantive or adjective, it refers to the work product of such persons, to the so-called "life of the mind" generally, or to an aspect of something where learning, erudition, and informed and critical thinking are the focus, as in "the intellectual level of the discourse on the matter was not high". Jacques Barzun, a French-American intellectual. The intellectual is a specific…

    • 272 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    intellectual property

    • 714 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Intellectual property is the property generated in the process of intellectual activities. It can be possessed and used, and generated benefits. The major components of intellectual property include copyrights, patents, and trademarks. Similar to tangible property, intellectual property which is an intangible property is also protected by the law. The governments and parliaments have given the creators the rights as an incentive to produce ideas that will benefit society as a whole, by preventing…

    • 714 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Intellectual Capital

    • 14400 Words
    • 58 Pages

    Understanding corporate value: managing and reporting intellectual capital Intellectual capital Contents 1 Introduction 4 2 Definitions of intellectual capital 6 2.1 2.2 Classifications of intellectual capital Why is intellectual capital so difficult to measure? 3 IC measurement 8 Generic models 3.1 Balanced scorecard 3.2 Performance prism 3.3 Knowledge assets map approach Individual company models 3.4 The Skandia navigator 3.5 Ericsson’s cockpit communicator…

    • 14400 Words
    • 58 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Intellectual Prostitution

    • 2427 Words
    • 10 Pages

    Intellectual Prostitution By Omar Javaid Merriam-Webster Online defines prostitution as the act or practice of engaging in promiscuous sexual relations especially for money , and Prostitute as a person who offers indiscriminately, for sexual interaction especially for money OR a devotee to corrupt or unworthy purposes . Oxford Concise Dictionary also states similar definition . In the light of these definitions, this profession is promiscuous, I say that it is the ugliest profession on the face…

    • 2427 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Intellectual Pr

    • 2088 Words
    • 14 Pages

    Teresa da Silva Lopes Intellectual Property Rights in International Business Strategy International Business Strategy 1 Intellectual Property Rights in IBS Learning Outcomes - Distinguish trademarks, from patents, copyrights and trade secrets. - Discuss the importance of intellectual property protection in today’s global business. - How protection of intellectual property rights may affect the activity of a firm operating internationally Univ. of York; International Business Strategy; Professor…

    • 2088 Words
    • 14 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Intellectual Disabilities

    • 1160 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Persons with Intellectual Disabilities or Intellectually Disabled Persons: Which is the Classifying Entity? As I write this, sitting in a solitaire corner of the library, I'm gently enclosing in my hand a simple rubber bracelet. My inspiration. Not the famous, bright yellow LiveStrong ones that Neil Armstrong once yielded, but a modest black band with contrasting white letters simply stating "I See You." This statement may seem unpretentious and bland, maybe even comical to some, but it has a sincere…

    • 1160 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Intellectual Capital

    • 8980 Words
    • 36 Pages

    1.1. Definition of intellectual capital and a brief history of IC management Before someone can measure something, he/she has to know what to count. So how should intellectual capital be defined? A universally accepted definition is the first step toward standardization, but still it is hard to find the best one for "intellectual capital". In this section I 'll define intellectual capital and study the history of its development. Intellectual capital is knowledge that can be exploited for…

    • 8980 Words
    • 36 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    than being intellectual like knowing how to constructively criticize and create. The reason I think they value this more is because people today want to be able to do stuff like be able to play sports or be able do something without thinking. Most people don't want to be intellectual. There are some people today that want to be intellectual and be able to learn new things and being able to criticize and create new things. Most of the people that want to be intellectual are intellectual because they…

    • 333 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Intellectual Exchanges

    • 1299 Words
    • 6 Pages

    and scope of enquiry, purpose of social and political enquiry, and the distinct area of intellectual endeavor (Burchill et al 2005). While current efforts are being made across the globe to expand the frontiers of the discipline from the…

    • 1299 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays