Intellectual Disability

Topics: Mental retardation, Special education, Disability Pages: 14 (4223 words) Published: September 24, 2015


Challenges Encountered by People with Intellectual Disabilities Your Name
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This paper was submitted in partial fulfillment of Class name XXX. Correspondence concerning this research paper should be addressed to Your Name, Department of XXXXXX, School's Name, City, State, Zip Code, Email: XXXXXXXXX Challenges Encountered by People with Intellectual Disabilities Intellectual disabilities can result from many causes. For instance, one can be diagnosed with an intellectual disability at birth due to a genetic disorder, during childhood development after being exposed to a certain pathological factor, or after being involved in a traumatic incident that disrupts the normal morphology or physiology of the brain (Capio et al., 2013). Regardless of the cause of the intellectual disability, one may find it difficult to adapt adequately and maintain a normal lifestyle once they have been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the challenges encountered by people with intellectual disabilities by reviewing relevant peer-reviewed literature. The areas that will be outlined are the promotion of dignity, choice, relationships and contributions that should be undertaken to reduce the challenges of individuals suffering from intellectual disabilities. An outline of the facilities and support that is available for individuals with intellectual disabilities will be succinctly provided. Furthermore, the role of a multidisciplinary team and a definition of frontline staff can assist one in overcoming the challenges associated with an intellectual disability will be reviewed. This paper will be concluded by evaluating how one can determine the most advantageous method for alleviating the challenges associated with an intellectual disability. Definition of Intellectual Disability

The definition of an intellectual disability has significantly changed over the last decade. Individuals with intellectual disabilities were classically labeled with harsh slang terms that are unconducive to the individual’s future recovery or development (Coyne et al., 2012). According to Coyne et al. (2012) intellectual disability may be defined as an intrinsic difficulty in learning and completing various daily life skills. In addition, Brown et al. (2011) defines intellectual disability as a below-average cognitive ability with the following characteristics: an intelligent quotient (or I.Q.) is between 70-75 or below; significant limitations in adaptive behaviors (the ability to adapt and carry on everyday life activities such as self-care, socializing, communicating, etc.); the onset of the disability occurs before age 18 (Wong, 2011).

There are multiple tiers of intellectual disabilities that are solely based on intelligence scores. For instance, moderate intellectual disability signifies an IQ score of approximately 52-69 (Emerson, 2012). People with this usually suffer from slightly impaired motor coordination; it is often diagnosed later in age. Children that suffer from a mild disability can develop socially and have good communication skills. These individuals can be expected to learn up to a sixth-grade level, by their late teens. In adulthood, these individuals will need guidance and assistance during times of unusual social or economic stress. In most cases, these individuals can achieve vocational skills for self-support (Emerson, 2012). Moderate intellectual disability has an IQ score that ranges from 36-51 (Emerson, 2012). In early childhood education, they show poor social awareness with fair motor coordination. They can learn to speak and communicate with others. They are expected to learn at the elementary level and may learn to travel alone in familiar places. They may learn some social and occupational skills. By adolescence, they will need assistance with economic and social decisions. They...

References: Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., & Ávila, L. T. G. (2013). An external focus of attention enhances motor learning in children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57(7), 627-634.
Coyne, P., Pisha, B., Dalton, B., Zeph, L. A., & Smith, N. C. (2012). Literacy by Design A Universal Design for Learning Approach for Students With Significant Intellectual Disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 33(3), 162-172.
Emerson, E. (2012). Clinical psychology and people with intellectual disabilities (Vol. 97). Toronto: John Wiley & Sons.
Emerson, E. (2013). Deprivation, ethnicity and the prevalence of intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66(3), 218-224.
Fletcher, J. M. (2012). Classification and identification of learning disabilities. Learning about learning disabilities, 24, 1-25.
Heslop, P., Blair, P. S., Fleming, P., Hoghton, M., Marriott, A., & Russ, L. (2014). The Confidential Inquiry into premature deaths of people with intellectual disabilities in the UK: a population-based study. The Lancet, 383(9920), 889-895.
Smith, T. E., Polloway, E. A., Patton, J. R., Dowdy, C. A., & Doughty, T. T. (2015). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings. New York: Pearson.
Van Bokhoven, H. (2011). Genetic and epigenetic networks in intellectual disabilities. Annual Review of Genetics, 45, 81-104.
Wong, B. (Ed.). (2011). Learning about learning disabilities. New York: Academic Press.
Zoghbi, H. Y., & Bear, M. F. (2012). Synaptic dysfunction in neurodevelopmental disorders associated with autism and intellectual disabilities. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 4(3), a009886.
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