Intellectual Disability

Topics: Mental retardation, Down syndrome, Developmental disability Pages: 13 (4000 words) Published: August 14, 2013
NATURE OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

Intellectual Disability (ID) is also known as “Mental Retardation” (MR). The term MR was replaced to the term ID by the doctors, professionals and health care practitioners because of the undesirable or negative connotation in our society.

In 2010, President Obama signed the S. 2781 (111th): Rosa’s Law, A bill to change references in Federal law to mental retardation to references to an intellectual disability, and to change references to a mentally retarded individual to references to an individual with an intellectual disability.

The term ID is usually used when a child/person has a certain limit in mental functioning. We should be aware that Intellectual disability is not a disease. It’s also not a type of mental illness, like depression. It is a condition wherein a person has difficulties in learning due to incomplete mental development. There is no cure for intellectual disabilities. However, most children with ID can learn to do many things. An individual with ID may take longer to learn to speak, walk, dress and eat without supervision. It just takes them more time and effort than other regular individual

“Intellectual disability means a significantly reduced ability to understand new or complex information and to learn and apply new skills (impaired intelligence). This results in a reduced ability to cope independently (impaired social functioning), and begins before adulthood, with a lasting effect on development.

Disability depends not only on a child’s health conditions or impairments but also and crucially on the extent to which environmental factors support the child’s full participation and inclusion in society. The use of the term intellectual disability in the context of the WHO initiative “Better health, better lives” includes children with autism who have intellectual impairments. It also encompasses children who have been placed in institutions because of perceived disabilities or family rejection and who consequently acquire developmental delays and psychological problems.” (World Health Organization)

Another definition from American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disability (AAIDD), “Intellectual Disability is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills.”

Intellectual functioning
It is referred to the general mental capacity which includes the memory, to read and write logic, problem solving, ability to understand. This is usually measure through IQ test. An IQ below 70 shows limitations in intellectual functioning.

Adaptive Behavior
These are behaviors that are necessary for a person to live or to function independently. These includes real life skills like personal care, dressing-up, reading and writing, ability to understand written or spoken language, safety, ability to follow rules, ability to work, money management, cleaning, social skills, how to socialize with other people, self-esteem and daily routines.

This is usually assessed using: 1. questionnaires completed by parents, guardians, teachers, social workers or adult learners. 2. Through observation wherein Professionals look at what the child/person can do and will be compared to its age range. Four Levels Of Severity of Intellectual Disability

MildIQ 52-69| They are considered “educable”.| ● need support and help to handle money and to plan and organize their daily life.●educable up to 6th grade● Can participate in and contribute to their families and their communities.● May marry and raise children with the support of family, friends and support services● May have a job, in either open or supported employment.● May live and travel independently ● learn to read and write, with appropriate teaching. People who have an intellectual disability are likely to have difficulty with academic learning and their reading and writing may...

References: Inciong, T. G. Quijano, Y.S., Capulong, Y.T., Gregorio, J. A., & Gines, A.C. (2007).
Introduction to Special Education
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