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INTEGRATING PEACE EDUCATION IN THE PRESENT CURRICULUM

By lucele Mar 15, 2015 1531 Words
LUCELE D. PASINAG, MAED-EM

INTEGRATING PEACE EDUCATION IN THE PRESENT CURRICULUM

“Without an integrated understanding of life, our individual and collective problems will only deepen and extend. The purpose of education is not to produce mere scholars, technicians and job hunters, but integrated men and women who are free of fear; for only between such human beings can there be enduring peace. J. Krishnamurti

Facets of Peace Education

I. Knowledge
Conflict
Students should study a variety of contemporary conflict situations from the personal to the global and attempts made to resolve them. Peace
Students should study different concepts of peace, both as a state of being and as an active process, on scales from the personal to the global. War
Students should explore some of the key issues and ethical dilemmas to do with conventional war. Nuclear Issues
Students should learn about a wide range of nuclear issues and be aware of the key viewpoints on defence and disarmament. Justice
Students should study a wide range of situations illustrating injustice. Power
Students should study issues to do with power in the world today. Gender
Students should study issues on discrimination based on gender. Race
Students should study issues to do with discrimination based on race. Environment
Students should have a concern for the environment welfare of all the natural systems on which they depend. Futures
Students should study a range of alternative futures, both probable and preferable.

II. Attitudes
Self-respect
Students will have a sense of their own worth and pride in their own particular social, cultural, and family background Respect for others
Students will have the sense of the worth of others, particularly of those with social, cultural, and family backgrounds different from their own. Ecological concern
Students will have a sense of respect for the natural environment and our overall place in the web of life. Open-mindedness
Students will be willing to approach different sources of information, people, and events with a critical approach but open mind. Vision
Students will be open to and value various dreams and visions of what a better world might look like. Commitment to justice
Students will be enabled to value genuinely democratic principles and processes and be ready to work for a more just and peaceful world at local, national, and international levels.

III. Values
Values related to human rights and democracy
dignity, equality, protection of the rights of all peoples, freedom of speech and expression, and freedom of belief Values related to cooperation and solidarity
love of peace and harmony, conflict resolution by peaceful means, mutual understanding and cooperation and respect Values related to the preservation of culture
Culture of peace, respect for the family and all of its members, appreciation of one’s own culture, appreciation of the world’s cultural heritage and human achievement Values related to self and others

Self-awareness, self-esteem, and discipline
Respect and empathy in our relationship with others
Moral courage
O-mindedness, truthfulness and tolerance
Mutual respect for the religious observance of others
Freedom of thought, conscience and belief
Freedom of religious practice
Values related to internationalism
Awareness of the rights and duties of citizenship
Equality among nations
Harmony between nationalism, regionalism, and internationalism Awareness of global issues and their peaceful resolution
Values related to the protection of the environment
Interdependence of people and nature
Caring for environmental welfare
Commitment to maintain and improve the environment for the survival of all species

IV. Skills
Critical Thinking
Information Handling
Creative Thinking
Reflection
Cooperation
Empathy
Assertiveness
Conflict Resolution

Six Major Media of Integration

I. Subject Context
Language
Peace education in the context of language provides motivation for inter-cultural communication, a dimension of social consciousness within the curriculum, and potential for interconnecting disciplines and addressing complex issues. Language Activities used in teaching Peace Education:

1. Reading and Writing
2. Speaking and Listening
3. Including Human Rights and Peacemaking Vocabulary Words in Weekly Spelling Program 4. Communication Skills
5. Writing Scripts and Plays
6. Debates
7. Drama
8. Negotiation
Mathematics
Mathematics can be a very powerful way to approach topics of equity, global distribution of wealth, economic development, and military versus educational expenditures, pollution, and environmental responsibility. Peace concepts can be effectively integrated:

1. While teaching graphs, charts and so on, it could be produced to display some of the relationships of our country with others. 2. Students could be made to be aware of the world problems involving cost of defense budgets and local impact. 3. Problem solving method

4. Creating a bar graph showing data.
Science
Science teachers can teach peace by promoting environmental awareness and ecological thinking. Processes of obtaining, analyzing and evaluating evidences and making predictions in science develop social skills for peace and collaborative citizenship. Themes of peace and justice can be infused in the content of science subject so that peace is pervasive in the curriculum. 1. Life Science

2. Chemistry
3. Physics
Social Sciences
Peace education is a natural extension of the elementary classroom; it is not that Peace Education is something that children “do”, but it is not what they “do” what is true is that teachers themselves should serve as a model and teach through example. The following are Social Science subjects that provide scope to enable students to explore world peace. 1. History

2. Geography
Art and Design
In Art, as in Design Technology, investigating and making can be practiced collaboratively in the classroom. -The art world is full of images and conflict, death and anger besides peace, serenity and cooperation. -Signs and symbols have been used for centuries to promote war or peace. -Students can be encouraged to do specific projects highlighting the necessity of peace to human community. Computer Science

-Information Communication Technology (ICT) has not only increased the potential for global co-operation but has also changed the way wars are fought. -Students could use ICT to research and present their hopes for greater cooperation and understanding in the future by producing a website or multimedia presentation. -Students could examine the morality of killing people from a keyboard thousands of miles away, or the notion of a ‘just’ war in which some are armed with hi-tech equipment and others use military technology centuries old. -In Information Technology, communicating and handling information can give great scope for exchanging ideas and experiences with others, particularly other young people across the world.

II. TEACHING METHODS
“The development of learning that will enable humankind to renounce the institution of war and replace it with institutions more consistent with the visions and values being articulated in the body of international standards remain the core of the Peace Education task.

-Betty Reardon, Peace Education:
A Review and Projection, (1999)

In the process of integrating Peace Education, how to teach is more important than what to teach. Teachers must be proficient in conflict resolution and race related issues.

* One hope for peace is teaching all students the knowledge, procedural competencies, identity, and values required to maintain peace within themselves (intrapersonal peace), among individuals (interpersonal peace), among groups (inter group peace), and among countries, societies and cultures (international peace) in the school.

The following are some of the effective ways of teaching peace:

Cooperative learning
Group discussion
Peer teaching
Brainstorming
Role-play
Energizers
Storytelling
Service learning
Experiential learning
Inquiry based learning and teaching
Dialogues

III. CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
Co-curricular activity
is a program or out-of-class activity which provides curriculum-related learning and character building experiences. are particularly good at providing opportunities for students to work in teams, to exercise leadership, and to take the initiative themselves.

Peace Education programs should find their way into the co-curricular activities
which may start in a variety of different ways through:
1. Assembly
2. Sports and Games
3. Debates
4. Club Activities
5. Organizing Uniformed Groups
a. National Cadet Corps (NCC)
b. National Social Service Scheme
c. Guides
d. Scouts
6. Cultural Meets
a. Music
b. Dance and drama

IV. STAFF DEVELOPMENT
* Making a school a place of peace is an achievement of a cooperative effort and
the commitment of the whole staff under the supportive leadership of a competent
principal.

Activities for staff development
1. Conducting staff meeting
2. Provide Discussions forums and Workshops
3. Training Methods
4. Organizing Staff Seminars on Peace Education
5. Intensive Training

V. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

*Maintaining a well-behaved classroom is one of the most crucial elements for
achieving maximum learning.

Principles of Classroom Management

Encouraging good behavior with praise
Happy students display better classroom behavior
Engaging students in interesting lessons is a sure-fire way to eliminate problem behavior. Handling disruptions with minimal interruption
Prevention is far easier than a treatment.

VI. SCHOOL MANAGEMENT
Peace Education as a subject can only be truly successful if it is taught within the
context of a school dedicated to peace, and based on democratic principles.

Peace Education can be successfully integrated through these principles: 1. Positive tone of warmth and safety climate
2. Child-centered philosophy and practice
3. Practices for developing self-esteem
4. Absence of corporal punishment

VII. PRACTICAL STEPS TO BUILD PEACE CULTURE IN SCHOOLS
The following are the practical steps to build peace culture in schools 1. Meta-cognition and thinking dispositions

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