Int1 Task 3

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Topics: Experiment
Project Design Plan
This experiment is to test the theory that the temperature of water affects the duration of time it takes to water to reach freezing?
Hot water freezing faster than cold has been observed for many centuries. The earliest known reference to this effect is by Aristotle, who wrote: "The fact that water has previously been warmed contributes to its freezing quickly; for so it cools sooner. Hence many people, when they want to cool hot water quickly, begin by putting it in the sun. . ." (Jeng)
Literature review 1. According to a study of the Mpemba effect by Monwhea Jeng Many factors impact water as it cools and eventually freezes, evaporation can contribute to a loss of mass, Hot water can hold less dissolved gas than cold water and large amounts of dissolved gas escape upon boiling, convection currents and non-uniform temperature distribution happen as water cools, the environmental of the hot sample also impacts the environment around it. Super cooling may also have an important role in the effect, super cooling occours when water freezes not at 0c but at some lower temperature. (Jeng, The Mpemba effect: When can hot water freeze faster than cold? , 2006)

2. In 1963 a student named Erasto B Mpemba noticed that placing recently a recently boiled mixture of milk and sugar into the refrigerator it froze into ice-cream faster than another students mixture that was not heated. He asked his physics instructor why this had happened and his physics instructor informed him “you are confused, that cannot happen” this response highlights the need for objectivity in scientific studies. After repeatedly asking various instructors to explain his observations Mpemba took two 50ml beakers and filled one with water from the tap and one from hot water from a boiler and put them into a freezer, after an hour he discovered that their was in fact more ice formation in the sample from the boiler. Dr Osborne visited the school where Mpemba studied and



Cited: Jeng, M. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/General/hot_water.html#History Jeng, M. (2006). The Mpemba effect: When can hot water freeze faster than cold? . American Journal of Physics, 514. Kurtus, R. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/mpemba.htm Osborne, E. M. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.rsc.org/images/Cool-Mpemba-Osborne1969_tcm18-222099.pdf

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