INT 1 Taks 1

Topics: Chernobyl disaster, Charles Darwin, International Atomic Energy Agency Pages: 10 (750 words) Published: July 22, 2015
Scientific Concept:
Darwin’s Theory of
Evolution

Javier Pabe INT1-Task1

History of evolution before Darwin.






Evolution originally referred to the supposed series of
changes that a species was predetermined to
undergo, in the same way that an embryo is
preprogrammed to develop.
Before Darwin, transmutation of species generally
meant that a species as a whole changed into a more
complex species through some (unspecified) process.
Darwin introduced the “Origin of species” theory in
1859. Then, the whole scientific idea and view on
evolution changed.

Darwin’s view on evolution





Darwin noticed that change was not necessarily a process
of continue development until perfection
Darwin presented a specific mechanism, called natural
selection, that explained why new species were different
in appearance and behavior
Darwin also noticed that the origin of a new species did
not involve an whole entire species’ undergoing change.
He was able to determine that the origination of a new
species might occur in only a part of the parental species,
therefore, he discovered a subpopulation of such specie
can exist. The remaining populations of the specie could
remain the same with no changes to their appearance.

Scientific examples that prove Darwinism






Biochemistry is the study of cells. The biochemistry
study shows that all of Earth’s organisms share a common
ancestry and that their cells are particular similar
Comparative anatomy is the comparison of the
structures of different living things. This can be referenced to animals and how skeletons of humans, cats, whales,
and bats, are similar even though these animals live
unique lifestyles in very different environments.
Comparative embryology compares the embryos of
different organisms. The embryos of many animals, from
fish to humans, show similarities that suggest a common
ancestor.

Chernobyl Disaster

Catastrophic Nuclear Accident

Chernobyl before disaster
 In

1986, one of the Chernobyl nuclear plant’s
reactor exploded while tests were being conducted.
 This disaster is the most catastrophic accident in
the nuclear industry to this date.
 Radioactive materials were released into the
environment.
 116,000 thousand people were evacuated after the
accident
 The nuclear toxic cloud spread for thousand of
miles over Europe and Asia.

Chernobyl before the accident
 Chernobyl

was considered an upscale
place to live
 Pripyat City, was a regular place, with
cinemas, shopping centers and good
schools
 The city was built to house local nuclear
experts and service workers

Changes made since the explosion
This disaster is the reason why now grass, milk, and food we eat is now tested for toxic nuclear waste
 Stricter regulations are now in placed in order to more safely produce nuclear power
 Chernobyl reactors no.4 is now enclosed in a concrete shelter to allow continuous processes
 Automatic shutdown operators react faster to a possible
disaster
 All reactors now operation have undergone major changes
and modifications for safer operations
 The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reviews
nuclear projects and focuses on improvements
 A replication of this accident nowadays is almost impossible 

What we have learned
 In

1989, the World Health Organization raised concerns about
radiation exposure
 The original cloud of contaminated air deposited toxic waste on the land. This affected the water, which in consequence
contaminated plants, aquatic plants and fish.
 Since the drinking water was also contaminated, the animals on the earth surface were impacted along with humans who drank
this water.
 Exposure to radiation creates a higher chance of cancer in later life. Large numbers of victims are still at risk today.
 Pregnant mothers who were affected by the radiation, can possibly pass toxic waste to the children by...


References: Darwin CR. (1859)On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. London: John Murray.
Retrieved on July 15th, 2015 from http://ncse.com/rncse/21/1-2/defining-evolution.
Endler JA. Natural Selection in the Wild. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. Retrieved on
July 16th, 2015 from http://ncse.com/rncse/21/1-2/defining-evolution
Energy Agency, 2006 (ISBN 9201147058). Retrieved on July 16th, 2015 from
http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Safety-and-Security/Safety-of-Plants/Chernobyl-Accident/
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