Insulin for Type 1 Diabetes Lab Report
Insulin, an amino-acid based protein, helps make up a larger polypeptide chain, proinsulin, which is located within the beta cells of the pancreas. Enzymes release the insulin from the larger proinsulin chain just before it is secreted from the beta cells. Insulin’s main function is to lower blood glucose levels by speeding up the membrane transport of glucose from the blood and into the body’s cells, for use for energy or conversion to other storage forms, like glycogen or fats.[i] It also acts as an inhibitor to glycogen by not allowing it to break down into glucose and thus counter acts any metabolic activity that would increase the plasma levels of glucose.[ii] This experiment will study the effects of insulin on a normal rat, and on a rat that has been induced with Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas. The pancreas is then incapable of producing insulin, and thus the body’s blood glucose levels become elevated.[iii]
Based on the given information for type 1 diabetes, in this report, a hypothesis can be made that insulin given to a subject with type 1 diabetes would help lower his or her blood glucose levels while insulin that is given to a normal subject will have no effect.
Materials and Methods
Experiment 1: • Spectrophotometer • Centrifuge • Incubator • 5 test tubes • Pipettes • Tweezers • 1 bottle of Glucose Standard • 1 bottle of deionized water • 1 bottle of Enzyme Reactor Agent
5 test tubes were filled with glucose standard. The first tube received 1 drop of the glucose standard, the second, 2 drops and so on. Each tube, receiving one drop more than the last. Deionized water was added to tubes one through four, with tube one receiving 4 drops, tube two: three