Innovation and Technology
Technology is recognized as one of the most critical factors driving business and organizations. The extensive use of technology in turn has highlighted the need to develop criteria and standards for outcomes in its application. According to Zabel (2004) the impact of technology is not as straightforward as it seems and cautions against assumptions that technology always has positive impacts to organization. In a similar manner, Morris (2006) points out that adaptation of technology should be sensitive to the contexts of its application, implying the dependence of technology application outcomes to the competencies and attributes of both organization and individuals.
The objective of this paper is to determine whether technology significantly impacts the core strategies and organization of companies to the extent that it should be considered as the primary means of initiating innovation or development. For the purpose of this study, the validity of the statement will consider in both public as well private enterprises from small to large scale. In the course of the discussion, the research will also determine effective applications of technology, how it is changing markets and industries and the developing challenges for companies with its utilization.
Technology and Productivity
The application of technology necessitates a study of the relationship of productivity and technology. The debate on whether productivity paradoxes really do exist has become an issue for analysts and managers once more with the shift towards digitization. Consider the implications of the productivity paradox or the Solow computer paradox that Robert Solow theorized in response to the mechanization of clerical work. According to Solow that, "You can see the computer age everywhere but in the productivity statistics," (Greenan et al, 2002, p. 42). The productivity paradox implies that as technology is introduced to a system, in particular information technology, work productivity decreases (McGovern, 2001). If the paradox is to be accepted as true, then technology contravenes productive strategies. However, Dusharme (2001) points out that these impacts are part of the process of adaptation, similar to competency development learning curves. Furthermore, Suter (2007) points out that many companies have considered alternatives to techno-based strategies because of the cost of implementation as well as discrepancies in information literacy in international markets. In Tubbs and Schulz (2006) study, he concluded that lags in productivity in technology-related initiatives can be attributed to the lack of channels where the technology can be learned or used. Explanations for the decline in productivity pointed out the need for technology to be prevalent before it impacts productivity significantly. Thus, later adaptation to technology creates less vulnerability to productivity paradoxes: the implication is that later access to emerging technologies, with the assumption that there has bee growth in software and applications available, is a more viable choice to ensure productivity.
Technology and Business Operations
According to there should be a realization that the technology is a tool and the degree of its impact is dependent on other strategies (Womack et al, 1991). The bulk of technology adaptations and strategies have focused on information and communications technologies. Among the benefits that have been seen is the increase in communication and networking capacity technology provides (Insinga & Werle, 2000). For example, the utilization of VOIP (voice over internet protocol) operations has become critical in the management or trafficking PSTN calls locally and internationally as well as mobile communications; IP Multimedia Subsystems (IMS) are providing platforms for the incorporation of internet technologies with business operations; as well facilitated the actual interface...
References: Avon (2007). Being an Avon Representative. Retrieved February 24, 2008, from http://www.youravon.com/REPSuite/static/BAR/become_a_rep_avon.html
Berman, Evan M
Berman, Evan M. et al, Eds. (2006). Human resource management in public service; paradoxes, processes, and problems. London: Sage Publications
Bolstorff, Peter A. (2002). Supply Chain: A Framework for Expanding the Human Resource Development Professional’s Role in Technology Implementations. Advances in Developing Human Resources, November (4): 533 - 549.
Cohen, Adam (2003)
De Kare-Silver, Michael (2000). E-Shock 2000. McMillan Business
Dusharme, Dirk (2001)
Greenan, Nathalie, L 'Horty, Yannick and Mairesse, Jacques (2002). Productivity, Inequality and the Digital Economy: A Transatlantic Perspective. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Heim, Gregory R. and Sinha, Kingshuk K. (2001). A Product-Process Matrix for Electronic B2C Operations: Implications for the Delivery of Customer Value. Journal of Service Research, May (3): 286 - 299.
Heuring, Linda (2004)
Insinga, R. C. and Werle M. J. (2000). Linking outsourcing to business strategy. The Academy of Management Executive, (14) 4: 58-70
Jablonski, S. and Bussler, C. (1996). Workflow Management. Modeling Concepts, Architecture and Implementation. London : International Thomson Computer Press
Johansson, Johny K. (2001). Global Marketing: Foreign Entry, Local Marketing and Global Marketing, International edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Leahy, Terry (2006). What innovation means to Tesco.. Retrieved February 245, 2008, from http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/about/CI/CP/the_edge/issue21/tesco.aspx?ComponentId=14164&SourcePageId=14206
McGovern, Gerry (2001). The technology productivity paradox. Retrieved February 24, 2008, from http://www.gerrymcgovern.com/nt/2001/nt_2001_10_29_productivity.htm
Morris, Betsy (2006)
Neil, Rob (2006). Avon is still calling. BBC News - BBC Money Programme, November 6. Retrieved February 24, 2008, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/6110984.stm
Schiller, Bradley R. (2005).The Macro Economy Today. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin,
Seyoum, B. (2007). Trade liberalization and patterns of strategic adjustment in the US textiles and clothing industry. International Business Review, Volume 16, Issue 1, February. pp 109-135
Siemens Enterprise Communications (2006)
Suter, R. (2007). Securing strategic benefit from enterprise architectures. Defense AT&L, January-February. Retrieved February 24, 2008, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0QMG/is_1_36/ai_n18630058
Tchaïcha, Jane D
Tesco (2006). Inside Tesco. Chesthunt, Hertfordshire: TESCO
Womack, James P., Jones, Daniel T., and Roos, Daniel (1991). The Machine That Changed the World: The Story of Lean Production. New York: Harper Perennial
Please join StudyMode to read the full document