Faculty of Pharmacy
Organic Chemistry Department
Course Code: PC 222
Name: Ghazal Mhd Bassam Bakieh ID: 136909
Name: Christine Botros Mihail Bishay ID:124509
Name: Yaman Mhd Fawaz Hawasly ID: 137215
I-Infrared spectrometer and sampling techniques
Spectrophotometry in chemistry is a quantitative measure of the reflection or transmission of material properties as a function of wavelength. It is more specialized than the term electromagnetic spectroscopy which is general in that spectrophotometry deals with near-ultraviolet, visible light, and near-infrared, but doesn’t cover the techniques of time-resolved spectroscopic . Spectrophotometer is used in Spectrophotometry. A spectrophotometer is a photometer that measures the intensity as a function of the wavelength of the light source. Important features of spectrophotometers are linear range of absorption or reflectance measurement spectral and bandwidth. A spectrophotometer is used commonly for the transmittance measurement or solutions reflectance, opaque solids or transparent, such as gases, or polished glass. However they can be designed to measure the diffusivity of any of the listed light ranges that which cover around 200nm - 2500nm using different calibrations and controls. Calibrations are needed on the machine, within these ranges of light, using standards which vary in type depending on the wavelength of the photometric determination. An example for spectrophotometry experiment is used is the determination of the solution equilibrium constant. A specific chemical reaction in a solution may occur in a reverse and forward direction where products break down into reactants and reactants form products. At some point, this chemical reaction will reach a point of balance called an equilibrium point. In order to determine the respective concentrations of products and reactants at this point, the light transmittance of the solution can be tested using spectrophotometry. The amount of light that passes through the solution the concentration of certain chemicals is indicative that do not allow light to pass through. The use of spectrophotometers spans various scientific fields, such as materials science, physics, biochemistry, molecular biology , and chemistry. They are widely used in many industries including semiconductors, laser and optical manufacturing, printing and forensic examination, and as well in laboratories for the chemical substances study. Ultimately, a spectrophotometer is able to determine, depending on the control or calibration, what substances are present in a target and exactly how much through calculations of observed wavelengths.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum that is light with a longer wavelength and lower frequency than visible light. It covers a range of techniques, mostly based on absorption spectroscopy. As with all spectroscopic techniques, it can be used to identify and study chemicals. A common laboratory instrument that uses this technique is a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is usually divided into three regions; the near-, mid- and far- infrared, named for their relation to the visible spectrum. The higher-energy near-IR, approximately 14000–4000 cm−1 (0.8–2.5 μm wavelength) can excite overtone or harmonic vibrations. The mid-infrared, approximately 4000–400 cm−1 (2.5–25 μm) may be used to study the fundamental vibrations and associated rotational-vibrational structure. The far-infrared, approximately 400–10 cm−1 (25–1000 μm), lying adjacent to the microwave region, has low energy and may be used for rotational spectroscopy. The names and classifications of these sub regions are conventions, and are only loosely based on the relative molecular or...
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