1. INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION SYSTEM
1.1. What is Data, Information and Knowledge?
The word data is derived from the Latin word “dare” which means to give. Data is collection of facts.These can be the values of qualitative or quantitative variables, belonging to a set of items.These can be numbers, words, measurements, observations or even just descriptions of things. Data in computing are represented in a structure, often tabular it can also be represented by rows and columns, a tree etc. Data as an abstract concept can be viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived. Raw data, i.e., unprocessed data, refers to a collection of numbers, characters and is a relative term; data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed data" from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next. Data is the first step of the pyramid as shown in the below figure1.
Fig1: pyramid structure of data, information and knowledge
Data as Fact:
Data is discrete, objective facts or observations, which are unorganized and unprocessed and therefore have no meaning or value because of lack of context and interpretation. Data is merely raw facts for example facts about the state of the world, material fact etc.
Data as Signal:
In the subjective domain, data are conceived of as "sensory stimuli, which we perceive through our senses or signal readings, including "sensor and/or sensory readings of light, sound, smell, taste, and touch American information scientist Glynn Harmon defines data as "one or more kinds of energy waves or particles (light, heat, sound, force, electromagnetic) selected by a conscious organism or intelligent agent on the basis of a pre-existing frame or inferential mechanism in the organism or agent.
Information is the next step of the pyramid as shown above in figure1. Information is the data that has been organized so that it has meaning and some value to the user. Conceptually, information is the message being conveyed. In its most restricted technical sense, message is a sequence that can be interpreted as a message. It can be recorded as signs, or transmitted as signals. Information can be both physical as well as electronic. Depending upon the sources of the information it can be classified as: * Primary information:
It is the first hand and unedited words, images or objects of the persons directly involved in an activity or event. It is before it has been analysed, interpreted, commented upon, spun, or repackaged. It can be research reports, sales receipts, speeches, e-mails, original artwork, manuscripts, photos, diaries, personal letters, spoken stories/tales, interviews, diplomatic records, etc. * Secondary information:
It is the analysed, interpreted and summarised form of information. These are written after events by parties not directly involved but who have special expertise in writing. These expertises can provide historical context or critical perspectives. Examples are scholarly books, journals, magazines, criticism, interpretations, and so forth. * Tertiary:
It is the information which is analysed, compiled and digest secondary information. It includes mostly in abstracts, bibliographies, handbooks, encyclopaedias, indexes, chronologies, etc.
Further information can be classified as:
* Strategic information:
Strategic information is used to help to plan the objectives of the complete business and then how well these objectives are achieved. It mainly includes: * It considers the profit of each and every part of the business. * It includes the size, growth and competitive structure of the operating market of business. * It includes the investments and the returns from that in the business. * Tactical information:
Tactical information is basically used to decide the allocation of the resources in the business. It mainly...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document