Informal Work of Urban Slum Women

Topics: Poverty, Slum, City Pages: 49 (16460 words) Published: June 22, 2013
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1Background of the Study
In Khulna city, there are about 102 slums and 66 squatters. Nearly 20 percent of the total population is currently living in these slums and squatters. The number of slums is almost twice (106) the number of squatters (66). The major slum areas are Rupsha, Khalishpur and Sonadanga area. The two slums in Khulna city are selected for study areas such as Rupsha Ferighat of Rupsha, and Shekpara basti in Shekpara. The background concentrated around the general information of the study area, demographic characteristics, economic characteristics and physical growth of the study area. Rupsha slum which is the largest slum of Khulna city accommodates a large number of working women but most of work in the fish processing factories. It situated in southern side of city Centre. It is in the 22ward, total population 913–male 324, female 589, households-227.Shekpara which is adjacent with city Centre was also selected for the study in which Shekpara basti was selected as best one firstly on the basis of highest concentration of household, high percentage of job seeking women, high rate of migrant family from rural areas. It situated beside city Centre. Shekhpara situated in ward no. 21, total population 2127-male 945, female 1182, household 472(Census of slums area and floating population, 1997). Population growth of this area is very high, mainly due to rural- urban migration. There were some religious and administrative factors behind this growth. Inadequate services and facilities, lack of proper accessibility, lack of open space, which Culminate this area into a bad living environment. Most of the people engaged in informal activities and majority are illiterate. 1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is well known for many years that development activities are centered on man only and women are considered as burdens of the family. Each and every woman encounters different types of social cultural and economic exploitation and is deprived of education, health and nutrition. No nation can achieve sustainable economic development without making a proper involvement of its both male and female manpower in its economic activities. The formal and informal sector distinctions are essential to clear everyone at first. Several studies in the 70s revealed that in many third world countries, substantial proportion of the workforce is concentrated in economic activities which are insecure, do not provide full time employment and generate low income. “The term informal sector may be referred to the economic activities which have the characteristics-Non-performance and casualness, Outside the scope of existing company law or government regulations, Carried on in small scale capitalized establishment mostly relying on household labor” (ILO, 1972). Rapid growth of urban area especially cities, are so called third world countries in the 1950s and 1960s added a new dimension to the problem of unemployment and led to a growing concern for it the term informal sector designates this area of economic activities. The governments of many countries are concerned to develop policies which would remove the grosser discrimination against these workers so as to guarantee them a better income. Much of the available information on informal sector suggested that women rather than men make up the bulk of those in the sector (IDS Bulletin, July 1991).If this be the case, then it is clear that policies would have to be specifically design to benefit the working women who form a large group in the informal sector. The particular effect of changes in skill requirement on the economic participation of women in the third world countries evidence two pattern in the main as observed from case studies. These are-where women are no longer able to make an important contribution to household economy, they are often forced to migrate out of rural areas and when women are squeezed out of independent productive activities...

References: Ahmed, S. 1993. Self Employed Small Entrepreneurs of the Informal Sector in Dhaka City. National Foundation for Research on Human Resource Development, Dhaka
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Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 1991. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistic Division. Ministry of Planning, Bangladesh
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Census of slums area and floating population, 1997.Vol-1
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Khunderkar,N. 1989. ____.Technology, Adaptation and Innovations in the Informal sector of Dhaka City
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