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Influence of Minibars to College students

By JahPat07 Oct 10, 2013 6615 Words
INTRODUCTION

We all know that people need some relaxation, refreshment, and pleasure. Since ancient period, different kinds of liquors and wines already exists especially beer, according to the authors from the earliest time. Everybody has their own occasions to celebrate such as birthdays, baptisms, weddings, and many more. Allied with this matter, entrepreneurs started to put up a business that sells wines and liquors. A facility that contains alcoholic beverages called Bar or Mini – Bar.

Alcohol is the most widely used mind altering drug. It is legal, readily available, and generally socially acceptable. Alcohol has stimulating, depressing and mood-altering functions that leave practically no circuit or system of the brain untouched.it can affect our judgment and make us do things we would not usually do when sober. Alcohol acts as an anaesthetic when it slows down our reflexes and coordination. Alcohol effects are dose related. The more you drink, the greater the effects that may occur.

In our generation, people who mostly drink alcohol inside mini-bars are college students. Abusive and underage college drinking are significant public health problems, and they exact an enormous toll on the intellectual and social life of students on campuses. Drinking at college has become a ritual that students often see as an integral part of their higher education experience.

Although the majority of students come to college already having some experience with alcohol, certain aspects of college life, such as unstructured time, the widespread availability of alcohol, inconsistent enforcement of underage drinking laws, and limited interactions with parents and other adults, can intensify the problem.

College is a time to prepare for the future. Building lasting relationships and enjoying your time in college is important. The choices you make outside the classroom can significantly impact your academic performance. Alcohol use can contribute to skipping class, missing deadlines, bombing a test or project because of the after effects of drinking alcohol. Some of the college students acquiring these negative influences of mini-bars as regards to studying habits are the Business Administration students of Arellano University – Jose Abad Santos Campus.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study will focus on The Influence of Mini – Bars as Regards to Studying Habits as Perceived by the Business Administration Students of Arellano University – JAS Campus. The following sub-problems are sought to answer: 1. What is the Demographic Profile of respondents in terms of:

1.1 Year Level;1.3 Age;
1.2 Civil Status;1.4 Gender;
2. What are the factors that influence the respondent going to mini bars in terms of:
2.1 Meetings;2.3 Unwind/Relaxation;
2.2 Social Gatherings;2.4 Peer Pressure;
3. What are the effects of mini bars in relation to studying habit of respondents in terms of:
3.1 Time for Studying;3.3 Expenses;
3.2 Liquor Addiction;3.4 Behavioural Attitude;

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
According to Sher (2005) , alcohol use has produced academic impairment. Several studies have revealed a consistent association between lower self-reported grade averages and higher levels of alcohol consumption. The negative effect of alcohol consumption was most pronounced on educational attainment in college among those students who ranked as high academic performers during their high school years. Memory loss during period of heavy drinking, a common occurrence among alcoholics, is also reported by a significant number of students who drink. Many college students who drink heavily experience negative short-term health consequences such as hangovers, nausea, and vomiting. Long-term health consequences of heavy alcohol use may include reduced resistance to infection and increased vulnerability to lifelong alcohol problems and its attendant physical consequences such as cirrhosis of the liver. However, heavy drinking in college does not necessarily continue after students graduate.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
To the School: The study will help AU–JAS Campus know why BA students might fail in their subjects and what the reasons are behind their downfall. To the Students: The study actually focuses on BA students of AU-JAS Campus. It will offer them knowledge and learning with regards to the influence of mini-bars as regards to studying habits as perceived by them. To the Professors: The study will provide the professors information on how they are going to observe students whether they perform excellence in class or not because of being influenced already of going to mini-bars and affecting their studying habits at the same time. To the Researchers: This study has a big significance for the researchers. Since we are BA students, we ought to know the benefits and disadvantages of minibars as a whole.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION
Subject. This study discussed The Influence of Mini – Bars as Regards to Studying Habits as Perceived by the Business Administration Students of Arellano University – JAS Campus. Setting. The study was purposely done within Arellano University – JAS Campus, Pasay City Respondent. This research has a great impact to all Arellano University students as the researchers’ respondents. Instrumentation. Researchers distributed survey form or questionnaires to the respondents. This instrument was used to gather information.

LIMITATIONS AND CHALLENGES
Deciding Which Sources to Use
The sources that we used should be credible and from reliable and trusted professionals or organizations. Furthermore, we do not let the sources themselves guide our research paper. While performing our research, we keep notes on all the sources we consult and how they influence our ideas and the direction of our research paper. Formatting Problems

We assure that we follow our professor's guidelines regarding the preferred formatting style of the research paper. Avoiding Weak Research
A weak research or main argument is the downfall of any research paper, but it is easy to avoid if we do enough initial research before we begin writing. We look for the context of the subject we are writing about, its past, present and future expectations, and arguments in favor of and against it. We cover all our bases and address them in our research paper so that we will avoid this common problem.

Insufficient Time
The writing process is lengthy, and the lack of time when writing is reflected in the quality of the work produced. Taking our time to not only write, but also research our paper and organize our thoughts is imperative in avoiding all these common problems as well as to produce a good piece of work.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This presents Foreign and Local Literature including studies related to the present understanding. This literature and studies are taken from various references. FOREIGN LITERATURE
College is a time to prepare for the future. Building lasting relationships and enjoying your time in college is important. The choices you make outside of the classroom can significantly impact your performance in the classroom. Alcohol use can contribute to skipping class, missing deadlines, bombing a test or project because of the after effects of drinking and impairing the ability to think abstractly for up to 30 days, limiting the ability to relate textbook reading to in-class discussion. Students who engage in risky drinking may experience blackouts, fatal and nonfatal injuries, including falls, drowning, illnesses, missed classes, unprotected sex that could lead to a sexually transmitted disease or an unwanted pregnancy; falling grades and academic failure; an arrest record; accidental death; and death by suicide. In addition, college students who drink to excess may miss opportunities to participate in the social, athletic, and cultural activities that are part of college life. Alcohol use has produced academic impairment; several studies have revealed a consistent association between lower self-reported grade averages and higher levels of alcohol consumption. The negative effect of alcohol consumption was most pronounced on educational attainment in college among those students who ranked as high academic performers during their high school years. Memory loss during periods of heavy drinking, a common occurrence among alcoholics, is also reported by a significant number of students who drink. Other studies have also documented blackouts among college students who drink to excess. Students who misuse alcohol risk personal injury and even death. It is difficult to unambiguously attribute injuries to drinking in some studies; still personal injuries to students as a result of heavy drinking have been documented. Many college students who drink heavily experience negative short-term health consequences such as hangovers, nausea, and vomiting. Longer-term health consequences of heavy alcohol use may include reduced resistance to infection and increased vulnerability to lifelong alcohol problems and its attendant physical consequences such as cirrhosis of the liver. Sher et al. (2007)

Alcohol is a relatively safe drug when used in moderation, but once of the most dangerous when abused. It is a depressant that directly affects the central nervous system. Alcohol slows brain activity and muscle reaction. It is the leading cause of accident; over half of all traffic deaths occurred in alcohol-related accidents. Alcoholics have a suicide rate six to fifteen times greater than the rate for the general population. Approximately seven out of ten drowning victims had been drinking prior to their deaths. Alcohol consumption is related to other problems as well such as among those criminals caught are drunk, absenteeism, lost production, medical expenses and immeasurable expenses due to disrupted families and countless emotional problems that arise from drinking. Continued use of large quantities of alcohol can result in indigestion, ulcers, degeneration of the brain, cirrhosis of the liver and malnutrition. Heavy consumption also reduces the production of white blood cells, so alcoholics have a low resistance to bacteria. Alcoholics, in addition, run the danger of the permanent destruction of brain cells, resulting in memory loss and sometimes psychotic behavior. The conclusion is inescapable, then that alcohol is the most dangerous drug physically for the individual and socially for society. Litzen & Bacazinn (2007)

Alcohol is the most widely used mind altering drug. It is legal, it is readily available and it is generally socially acceptable. Alcohol has stimulating, depressing and mood-altering functions that leave practically no circuit or system of the brain untouched. This range of effects is what sets alcohol apart from many other drugs. Alcohol acts as a stimulant when it directly stimulates those brain cells which lead to feelings of pleasure and euphoria. Alcohol is a depressant when it slows the brain down and reduces tensions and worries. It can affect our judgment and make us do things we would not usually do when sober. Alcohol acts as an anesthetic when it slows down our reflexes and coordination. Alcohol can put us to sleep, it can induce a coma and it can kill. Alcohol effects are dose related – the more alcohol you drink, the greater the effects that may occur.

Alcohol problems are hazardous drinking which means drinking at levels or in situations that are likely to cause harmful consequences. Alcohol abuse are the ideas that alcohol causes harmful consequences for a person, and the person continues to drink despite consequences. Psychological dependence occurs when the mind seems to take over the control of a person’s drinking. Physical dependence occurs when the body adapts to the high use of alcohol and requires this level of use to feel right or maintain its balance. Alcohol Advisory Council (2013)

The effects of alcohol are influenced by the user’s experience, relative size and weight, gender, motivation, and mood, as well as by the presence of food in the stomach, the proof of the beverage, and the rate of drinking. People drink because negative emotions such as tension, worry, anxiety, and depression are dulled and inhibitions may be loosened. It is to relax, to feel less tense in social situations, to keep friends company, and to forget their problems. Many other factors are also at work. Drinking is a widely endorsed and encouraged social ritual in our culture. Alcohol has a variety of side effects, including some that can be very problematic. To begin with, we have that infamous source of regret, the “hang-over”, which may include headaches, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. In the constellation of alcohol’s risks, however, hangovers are downright trivial. In substantial amounts, alcohol has a decidedly negative effect on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination. The resulting combination of tainted judgment, slowed reaction time, and reduced coordination can be deadly when people attempt to drive after drinking. Drunk driving is a major social problem and the leading cause of death in young adults. With their inhibitions released, some drinkers become argumentative and prone to aggression. In the survey of undergraduates from 119 schools, 29% of the students who did not engage in binge drinking reported that they had been insulted or humiliated by a drunken student, 19 % had experienced serious arguments, 9% had been pushed, hit, or assaulted, and 19.5% had been the target of unwanted sexual advances. Worse yet, alcohol appears to contribute to about 90% of student rapes and 95% of violent crime on campus.

Alcohol’s long-term health risks are mostly associated with chronic, heavy consumption of alcohol. Alcohol dependence is a chronic, progressive disorder marked by a growing compulsion to drink and impaired control over drinking that eventually interferes with health and social behavior. Whether alcoholism is best viewed as a disease or as a self control problem is the source of considerable debate, but experts have reached a reasonable consensus about the warning signs of alcoholism.

Alcoholism and problem drinking are associated with an elevated risk for a wide range of serious health problems. Although there is some thought-provoking evidence that moderate drinking may reduce one’s risk for coronary disease, it is clear that heavy drinking increases the risk for heart disease, hypertension, and stroke. De Paulo et. Al (2007) People who abuse substances find that their lives are affected in many ways. They neglect obligations at work, and their commitments to home, school, work and family start to erode. In addition to that, they may begin to take risk that are personally dangerous and put others in jeopardy, such as driving or operating powerful machinery while intoxicated. During episodes of intoxication, they may become argumentative and possibly violent with close ones.

The main features of abuse, then, is a pattern of behavior in which the individual continues to use substances, even when it is clear that such behavior entails significant risks or creates problems in living. For example, a college professor may insist on having three martinis at lunch, despite the fact that this interferes with her ability to teach her afternoon seminar. Her behavior is characterized as abuse because her drinking interferes with her work responsibilities. Substance dependence is a maladaptive pattern of substance use manifested by a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms during a 12-month period and caused by the continued use of substance. Ainsworth (2007) FOREIGN STUDIES

Abusive and underage college drinking are significant public health problems, and they exact an enormous toll on the intellectual and social lives of students on campuses. Drinking at college has become a ritual that students often see as an integral part of their higher-education experience. Many students come to college with established drinking habits, and the college environment can exacerbate the problem. Study shows that more than 80 percent of college students drink alcohol and almost half report binge drinking in the past 2 weeks. Virtually all college students experience the effects of college drinking—whether they drink or not. Consequences of abusive college drinking include death. Each year an estimated 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol related unintentional injuries, including motor vehicle crashes. Injury, each year an estimated 599,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are unintentionally injured under the influence of alcohol. Assault, each year an estimated 696,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are assaulted by another student who has been drinking. Sexual Abuse, each year an estimated 97,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are victims of alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape.Unsafe Sex, each year an estimated 400,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 have unprotected sex, and more than 100,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 report having been too intoxicated to know if they consented to having sex. Academic Problems, about one-quarter of college students report having academic consequences because of their drinking, including missing class, falling behind, doing poorly on exams or papers, and receiving lower grades overall. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence, 19% of college students between the ages of 18 and 24 met the criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, but only 5 percent of these students sought treatment for alcohol problems in the year preceding the survey. Although the majority of students come to college already having some experience with alcohol, certain aspects of college life, such as unstructured time, the widespread availability of alcohol, inconsistent enforcement of underage drinking laws, and limited interactions with parents and other adults, can intensify the problem. In fact, college students have higher binge-drinking rates and a higher incidence of drunk driving than their non-college peers. The first 6 weeks of freshman year is an especially vulnerable time for heavy drinking and alcohol related consequences because of student expectations and social pressures at the start of the academic year. www.niaaa.nih.gov(2010) For the first time, delegations from all 193 Member States of World Health Organization (WHO) reached consensus at the World Health Assembly on a global strategy to confront the harmful use of alcohol. Since 2008, WHO has been in the process of drafting a global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. On Friday 21 May 2010 the Sixty-third session of the World Health Assembly adopted by consensus resolution WHA63.13, which endorses the global strategy. The harmful use of alcohol is a serious health burden, and it affects virtually all individuals on an international scale. Health problems from dangerous alcohol use arise in the form of acute and chronic conditions, and adverse social consequences are common when they are associated with alcohol consumption. Every year, the harmful use of alcohol kills 2.5 million people, including 320 000 young people between 15 and 29 years of age. It is the third leading risk factor for poor health globally, and harmful use of alcohol was responsible for almost 4% of all deaths in the world, according to the estimates for 2004. The global strategy focuses on ten key areas of policy options and interventions at the national level and four priority areas for global action. The ten areas for national action are leadership, awareness and commitment; health services' response; community action; drink-driving policies and countermeasures; availability of alcohol; marketing of alcoholic beverages; pricing policies; reducing the negative consequences of drinking and alcohol intoxication; reducing the public health impact of illicit alcohol and informally produced alcohol; monitoring and surveillance. Dr. Poznyak(2010)

Heavy alcohol use by college students can lead to a cascade of alcohol-related problems, such as increased chances of risky behavior, lowered GPAs, and lowered income potential. In a nationwide survey of college students, 44.8 percent of students were classified as “binge” drinkers—consuming five or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past 30 days. College student alcohol use hurts student drinkers and the surrounding community. Strategies to reduce college underage and binge drinking include community and environmental policy changes and the enforcement of laws and regulations. In the study conducted of Campaign for Alcohol-free, binge drinking peaks at ages 21-23 (49.9 percent at age 21, 46.6 percent at age 22, and 47.7 percent at age 23). College students had more occasions of heavy drinking, defined as five or more drinks in a row, within the past 30 days than non-college adolescents of the same age (40 percent vs. 35 percent). 19.5 percent of full-time college students, aged 18-22, were considered heavy drinkers compared to 13.0 percent of people in the same age group who were not enrolled full-time in college. College students who drank at least once a month during their senior year in high school had a more than three times greater likelihood to begin binge drinking in college than students who drank less frequently in high school. 12.7 percent of students begin drinking beer over the course of their first year in college. First-year students drink less frequently but more heavily than upper-class students. 74.7 percent of athletes attending NCAA Division I schools used alcohol. 74.5 percent of athletes at NCAA Division II schools and 81.5 percent of athletes in NCAA Division III schools used alcohol. College students who were sports fans were more likely to engage in binge drinking behavior, including adopting extreme drinking styles and participating in drink price specials and beer-company-promoted promotions. Student membership in Greek organizations strongly predicts heavy alcohol use. College males have a higher prevalence of heavy drinking occasions (50 percent) compared to college females (34 percent). 87 percent of college students said it was “very” or “somewhat” easy for students under 21 to get alcohol. Most college students obtain alcohol at off-campus parties and off-campus bars. Fewer students attend fraternity parties than off-campus bars, but more of those who attend fraternity parties consume alcohol heavily than students who drink in off-campus establishments. Multiple alcohol outlets are often located near colleges, especially schools with high binge-drinking rates. Higher outlet density is associated with an increased perception of alcohol availability, lower retail price through competition, lower total cost to drinkers (including travel time), increased alcohol consumption, and more alcoholrelated problems. Students in “wet” environments, in which binge drinking is common and encouraged, alcohol is cheap, and it is easily obtained, are more likely to start binge drinking in college than peers who are not in “wet” environments. Most underage students get alcohol from legal-drinking-age students, but an increasing number of underage students report receiving alcohol from parents or relatives. Wechsler(2007) Study shows conducted by Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, nearly half of college freshmen who drink alcohol spend more time drinking each week than they do studying, suggests a survey involving more than 30,000 first-year students on 76 campuses who took an online alcohol education course last fall. Students who said they had at least one drink in the past 14 days spent an average 10.2 hours a week drinking, and averaged about 8.4 hours a week studying, according to findings being presented today at a conference in Seattle for campus student affairs officials. Nearly 70% of respondents (20,801 students) said they drank. Of those, 49.4% spent more time drinking than studying. John Pryor, managing director of the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA says that the main point is that students spend a lot of time drinking compared to other things you would want them to be doing in college. On survey, students spend time on studying is 8.4 hours, exercising is 5 hours, playing video games is 4.1 hours and social networking is only 2.5 hours. Marklein (2009)

LOCAL LITERATURE
The harmful use of alcohol is a global problem which compromises both individual and social development. It results in 2.5 million deaths each year. Alcohol is the world’s third largest risk factor for premature mortality, disability and loss of health; it is the leading risk factor in the Western Pacific and the Americas and the second largest in Europe. Alcohol is associated with many serious social and developmental issues, including violence, child neglect and abuse, and absenteeism in the workplace. It also causes harm far beyond the physical and psychological health of the drinker. It harms the well-being and health of people around the drinker. An intoxicated person can harm others or put them at risk of traffic accidents or violent behaviour, or negatively affect co-workers, relatives, friends or strangers. Thus, the impact of the harmful use of alcohol reaches deep into society. The harmful use of alcohol is a global problem which compromises both individual and social development. It results in 2.5 million deaths each year. It also causes harm far beyond the physical and psychological health of the drinker. It harms the well-being and health of people around the drinker. An intoxicated person can harm others or put them at risk of traffic accidents or violent behavior, or negatively affect co-workers, relatives, friends or strangers. Thus, the impact of the harmful use of alcohol reaches deep into society. Harmful drinking is a major determinant for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as alcohol use disorders and epilepsy and other no communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cirrhosis of the liver and various cancers. The harmful use of alcohol is also associated with several infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This is because alcohol consumption weakens the immune system and has a negative effect on patients’ adherence to antiretroviral treatment. A significant proportion of the disease burden attributable to harmful drinking arises from unintentional and intentional injuries, including those due to road traffic accidents, violence, and suicides. Fatal injuries attributable to alcohol consumption tend to occur in relatively younger age groups. www.who.int/philippines(2013)

There are common reasons why alcohol is consumed and these are because alcohol is a social lubricant. Alcohol assists people to relax, converse more easily and mix socially. It disinherits defenses and facilitates good company. Alcohol use in ritual, it has a mystique not shared by non-alcoholic beverages and its use in traditional rituals appears to add to the aura of special occasions. Social sharing, sharing an alcoholic drink with other people promotes a bonding and a connectedness amongst consumers often not gained through sharing non-alcoholic beverages. Drinking alcohol is accepted -and even expected-behavior. There is very little public criticism of people who drink alcohol – even to states of drunkenness. On the contrary, in a number of cultures and situations it is expected that one drinks – even to states of drunkenness. Taste and Quality, though an acquired taste, consumers of alcohol enjoy the taste of alcohol. Some people develop sophisticated palates for alcohol and sincerely appreciate good quality. Even traditionally made alcohol products vary in quality and demand is mediated by this. What one drinks and how one drinks it is very often an indication of culture and class. Alcohol as a reducer of stress, alcohol is often used to reduce the tension of an event – impending or actual. Research suggests that drinking can reduce stress in certain people and under certain circumstances. Differences include a family history of alcoholism, personality traits, self-consciousness, cognitive functioning and gender. Drinking as a means of dulling “the pain of poverty” or other hardships of life, for many people life is simply intolerable. They live in abysmal poverty or in life circumstances which produce unbearable emotional pain. Alcohol dulls that pain for as long as they are drinking. Consumption as “macho” behavior, men consumes large amounts of alcohol as an indication of their strength and manliness. Behaviors such as drinking more than anyone else or more quickly than anyone else are often regarded as admirable masculine qualities. With changing gender roles some women also “prove” themselves with binge drinking patterns. Consumption in youth, as children are usually prohibited from drinking alcohol, youth often see drinking alcohol as a state of adult behavior to be aspired to. Enjoyment of a state of intoxication, many people simply enjoy the feeling of intoxication. Maintaining a state of inebriation, the state of inebriation is not maintained unless additional alcohol is consumed. This may lead to more consumption and to states of drunkenness not necessarily intended when starting to drink. Lacks of information, many people are ignorant of the facts regarding the impacts and effects of alcohol and drink without knowing the dangers. www.wpro.who.int/philippines(2013)

LOCAL STUDIES
WHO is committed to assisting countries in the development, organization, monitoring and evaluation of treatment and other services? Study shows that the harmful use of alcohol results in 2.5 million deaths each year. 320,000 young people between the age of 15 and 29 die from alcohol-related causes, resulting in 9% of all deaths in that age group. At least 15.3 million persons have drug use disorders. Injecting drug use reported in 148 countries, of which 120 report HIV infection among this population. Alcohol consumption has been part of human history since antiquity. There are not only numerous biblical examples and ancient myths which refer to alcohol but local oral history and archeological findings suggests that consumption has been part of Philippine culture, rituals, tradition and custom since “time immemorial”. But the fact of enduring alcohol consumption and the passing down of this habit through generations does not adequately explain why alcohol is consumed. Moreover patterns of alcohol use have changed significantly over time and evidence suggests that the quantity used now is far greater than in earlier times. The WHO estimates that around 2 billion people worldwide consume alcohol and there is clearly no single reason why they do or why different people drink to different extents. It is apparent though that drinking is influenced by factors such as genetics, social environment, culture, age, gender,accessibility, exposure and personality. www.wpro.who.int/Philippines(2013)

Relevance of the Related Literature

The Review of Related Literature and Studies conducted by the researchers from various resources and references are well related topic. It gives several ideas on how to select and formulate research problem. It will help identify studies that have been done related to the topic and the possible theoretical framework for current study. It gives direction on how to create conceptual framework and a picture of a comparative analysis between variables used in reviewed materials and those used in the current study. This will served as basis to get in-depth knowledge and understanding about the subject matter and this will lead to generate ideas to a possible solution.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the methods used, the statistical treatment of data and the findings and conclusions.

STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA
The statistical tools were used to collate, analyze and interpret the information that was gathered. Frequency. This method was used in tabulating and grouping data into appropriate categories. It is the rate at which something occurs or is repeated over a particular period of time or in a given sample. Percentage. This formula tells about the relationship of a part of its whole. This method helped in interpreting objects and sub-groups having equal sizes.

Formula:
Where: % = Percentage
F = Frequency N = Total number of respondents
Weighted Mean. An average calculated by taking into account not only the frequencies of the values of a variable but also some other factor such as their variance. 
Formula:
Where:
 = Summation
F = Frequency
N = Total number of respondents

FINDINGS AND COMPUTATION
I. Demographic Profile of the Respondent
Table 1.1 Frequencies and Percentage Distribution of Respondents as to Year Level. YEAR LEVEL
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
RANK
1st year
7
14%
4
2nd year
9
18%
3
3rd year
15
30%
2
4th year
19
38%
1
TOTAL
50
100%

Table 1.1 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents as to Year Level. Out of 50 respondents, 7 of them are 1st year which comprise 14%. 9 of the 50 respondents are 2nd year which are 18%. 15 of them are 3rd year and 19 of the 50 respondents are 4th year students.

Table 1.2 Frequencies and Percentage Distribution of Respondents as to Civil Status. CIVIL STATUS
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
RANK
Single
50
100%
1
Married
0
0
2
TOTAL
50
100%

Table 1.2 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents as to Civil Status. All of the respondents are single which comprise 100%. Table 1.3 Frequencies and Percentage Distribution of Respondents as to Age AGE

FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
RANK
18-21 years old
43
86%
1
22-25 years old
7
14%
2
26 and above
0
0%
3
TOTAL
50
100%

Table 1.3 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents as to Age. Out of 50 respondents, 43 of them are 18 – 21 years old which comprise 86%. 7 of the 50 respondents are 22 – 25 years old which are 14% and none of the 50 respondents ages 26 and above

Table 1.4 Frequencies and Percentage Distribution of Respondents as to Gender. GENDER
FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
RANK
Male
23
46%
2
Female
27
54%
1
TOTAL
50
100%

Table 1.4 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents as to Gender. Out of 50 respondents of BA students, female rank as number 1 which comprises 54% and 46% of them are male.

II. Survey Questionnaires
Table 2.1 Frequencies, Percentage and Weighted Mean Distribution on how does respondent perceive the influence of the mini bars in terms of: Parameters
5
4
3
2
1
WEIGHTED MEAN
DESCRIPTION
1.1 Meetings
5x5
= 25
50

=0.5
15x4
= 60
50

=1.2
19x3
= 57
50

=1.14
8x2
= 16
50

=0.32
3x1
= 3
50

=0.06
3.22

MODERATELY INFLUENTIAL
1.2 Social Gatherings
7x5
= 35
50

=0.7
14x4
= 56
50

=1.12
20x3
= 60
50

=1.2
8x2
= 16
50

=0.32
1
= 1
50

=0.02
3.36

MODERATELY INFLUENTIAL
1.3 Unwind/Relaxation
6x5
= 30
50

=0.6
18x4
= 72
50

=1.44
20x3
= 60
50

=1.2
6x2
= 12
50

=0.24
0

=0
3.48

VERY INFLUENTIAL
1.4 Peer Pressure
5x5
= 25
50

=0.5
13x4
= 52
50

=1.04
28x3
= 84
50

=1.68
4x2
= 8
50

=0.16
0

=0
3.38

MODERATELY INFLUENTIAL

Table 2.1 presents Frequencies, Percentage and Weighted Mean Distribution on how does respondent perceive the influence of the mini bars to the selected variables.

Table 2.2 Frequencies, Percentage and Weighted Mean Distribution on how does respondent perceived the impact of mini bars in relates to studying habits:

Parameters
5
4
3
2
1
WEIGHTED MEAN
DESCRIPTION
2.1 Time for studying
7x5
= 35
50
14
=0.7
12x4
= 48
50
24
=0.96
20x3
= 60
50
40
=1.2
9x2
= 18
50
18
=0.36
2x1
= 2
50
4
=0.04
3.26

MODERATELY INFLUENTIAL
2.2 Liquor Addiction
6x5
= 30
50
12
=0.6
18x4
= 72
50
36
=1.44
18x3
= 54
50
36
=1.08
6x2
= 12
50
12
=0.24
2x1
= 2
50
4
=0.04
3.40

VERY INFLUENTIAL

2.3 Expenses

5x5
= 25
50
10
=0.5

29x4
= 116
50
58
=2.32

13x3
= 39
50
26
=0.78

3x2
= 6
50
6
=0.12

0

=0

3.72

VERY INFLUENTIAL
2.4 Behavioral Attitude
6x5
= 30
50

=0.6
12x4
= 48
50

=0.96
26x3
= 78
50

=1.56
3x2
= 6
50

=0.12
3x1
= 3
50

=0.06
3.30

MODERATELY INFLUENTIAL

Table 2.2 presents Frequencies, Percentage and Weighted Mean Distribution on how does respondent perceived the impact of mini bars in relates to studying habits.

CONCLUSIONS
Table 1.1 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents as to Year Level. Out of 50 respondents, 7 of them are 1st year which comprise 14%. 9 of the 50 respondents are 2nd year which are 18%. 15 of them are 3rd year and 19 of the 50 respondents are 4th year students. Table 1.2 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents as to Civil Status. All of the respondents are single which comprise 100%.

Table 1.3 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents as to Age. Out of 50 respondents, 43 of them are 18 – 21 years old which comprise 86%. 7 of the 50 respondents are 22 – 25 years old which are 14% and none of the 50 respondents ages 26 and above. Table 1.4 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents as to Gender. Out of 50 respondents of BA students, female rank as number 1 which comprises 54% and 46% of them are male. Table 2.1 presents Frequencies, Percentage and Weighted Mean Distribution on how does respondent perceive the influence of the mini bars to the selected variables. For Meetings, out of 50 respondents, most of them preferred meetings as moderately influential in going to mini bars. As per computation, the weighted mean is 3.22. 10% of them agreed that meeting is highly influential and 30% of them said that it is very influential. 38% revealed that it is moderately influential while 16% of them answered that it is influential. 6% of the respondents rated it as not influential. For Social Gatherings, respondents rated social gatherings as moderately influential with regards to going to mini bars. As per computation, the weighted mean is 3.36. 14% of them agreed that meeting is highly influential and 28% of them said that it is very influential. 40% revealed that it is moderately influential while 16% of them answered that it is influential. 2% of the respondents rated it as not influential. For Unwind/relaxation, out of 50 respondents, most of them are in favor of choosing moderately influential in terms of unwinding/relaxing. As per computation, the weighted mean is 3.48. 12% of them agreed that meeting is highly influential and 36% of them said that it is very influential. 40% revealed that it is moderately influential while on 12% of them answered that it is influential. None of the respondents rated it as not influential. For Peer pressure, majority of the 50 respondents are in favor of choosing moderately influential in rating peer pressure as one of the reasons why they go to mini bars. As per computation, the weighted mean is 3.38. 10% of them agreed that meeting is highly influential and 26% of them said that it is very influential. 56% revealed that it is moderately influential while on 8% of them answered that it is influential. None of the respondents rated it as not influential. Table 2.2 presents Frequencies, Percentage and Weighted Mean Distribution on how does respondent perceived the impact of mini bars in relates to studying habits. In Time for Studying, out of 50 respondents, most of them rated “time for studying” as moderately influential. As per computation, the weighted mean is 3.26. 14% of them agreed that meeting is highly influential and 24% of them said that it is very influential. 40% revealed that it is moderately influential while on 18% of them answered that it is influential. 4% of the respondents rated it as not influential. For Liquor Addiction, most of the respondents similarly rated “liquor addiction” as very influential and moderately influential. As per computation, the weighted mean is 3.40. 12% of them agreed that meeting is highly influential and 36% of them said that it is very influential. 36% revealed that it is moderately influential while on 12% of them answered that it is influential. 4% of the respondents rated it as not influential. For Expenses, majority of the respondents rated “expenses” as very influential in perceiving the impact of mini bars with relates to studying habits. As per computation, the weighted mean is 3.72. 10% of them agreed that meeting is highly influential and 58% of them said that it is very influential. 26% revealed that it is moderately influential while on 6% of them answered that it is influential. None of the respondents rated it as not influential. In Behavioral Attitude, out of 50 respondents, majority of them rated moderately influential in terms of “behavioural attitude”. As per computation, the weighted mean is 3.30. 12% of them agreed that meeting is highly influential and 24% of them said that it is very influential. 52% revealed that it is moderately influential while on 6% of them answered that it is influential. 6% of the respondents rated it as not influential.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 Meetings
Students who want to conduct meetings should rather set their venue in such places that they would be able to concentrate more like auditorium, classroom, or multi-purpose hall than bars/mini-bars that create so much noise. 1.2 Social Gatherings

Students who want to conduct social gatherings should rather set their venue that is more likely a simple place like house or club house than bars/mini-bars having plenty of wines and liquors. 1.3 Unwind/Relaxation

Students who want to unwind or relax should rather go to places like amusement park, massage spa or mall together with their family than to bars/mini-bars together with their friends who can possibly influence them and do things that they usually do if drunk. 1.4 Peer Pressure

Students should avoid their friends who mainly pressure them to go to mini-bars and get drunk. They should choose friends who will influence them in good terms of studying. 2.1 Time for studying
Students must spend more time for studying than going to bars/mini-bars which will only affect their studying habits. 2.2 Liquor Addiction
Students must avoid going to mini-bars and drinking alcohol regularly. If they do so, they will be addicted and it may cause failure to their subjects. 2.3 Expenses
Students must not go to mini-bars and drink alcohol because it’s only an additional expense. Spend money in buying foods instead. 2.4 Behavioral Attitude
Students must not go to mini-bars because they can only get bad behavioural attitude there and bring it to school that will give negative criticisms to them.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. BOOKS
Ainsworth, M.D, Attachment Beyond Infancy, Copyright 2007,
Lorimar Publishing Inc.
Bacazinn, Maxine, Social Problems, Copyright 2007,
Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
Bartholow, B.D Psychological Science, Copyright 2009,
Printed and Bound in USA
De Pulo, B. M. The Handbook of Social Psychology, Copyright 2007, Published in Boston
Halgin, Richard, Abnormal Psychology, Copyright 2008,
Published in USA
Henslin, James, Social Problems, Copyright 2007,
Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River
Nevid, Jeffrey S. Essentials of Psychology, Copyright 2007, Katha Publishing Co. Inc
Weiten, Lloyd, Pschology Applied to Modern Life, Copyright 2007, Published by REX Bookstore

B. THESIS
Cotner, Christopher L. In their own Words: College Students Who Abstain From Drinking, 2005, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Gilla, Mette, Alcohol Use Among College Students: A Study of Peer Influence and Overestimation of Social Norm 2012, DBS School of Arts

Kutnow, James III Spirituality and Binge Drinking Among College Students 2010, Indiana State University
Leppert, Blair Predictors of Binge Drinking Among College Students 2005, Mississippi State University

C. DICTIONARY
Merriam-Webster Online: Dictionary and Thesaurus
FreeDictionary.com

D. INTERNET/WEBSITE
www.niaa.nih.gov Alcohol Advisory Council
www.wpro.who.int The Harmful Use of Alcohol
www.usatoday.com How Freshmen Spend Time
http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov College Drinking

APPENDICES

THE INFLUENCE OF MINIBARS AS REGARDS TO STUDYING HABITS AS PERCEIVE BY THE BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION STUDENTS OF ARELLANO JAS CAMPUS

A. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE
Name: ________________________
Year level: _____________Civil Status:SingleMarried
Age:Gender:
18-21 years old Male
22-25 years old Female
26 and above

B. SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

Rating Scale:

5 - HIGHLY INFLUENTIAL
4 - VERY INFLUENTIAL
3 - MODERATELY INFLUENTIAL
2 - INFLUENTIAL
1 - NOT INFLUENTIAL

5
4
3
2
1
1. How does respondent perceive
the influence of the minibars in
terms of:

1.1 Meetings

1.2 Social Gatherings

1.3 Unwind/Relaxation

1.4 Peer Pressure

5
4
3
2
1
2. How does respondent perceived
the impact of mini-bars in relation to
studying habits?

2.1 Time for studying

2.2 Liquor Addiction

2.3 Expenses

2.4 Behavioral Attitude

                                            

Cite This Document

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