Scientific study of human population, their size, their structure, their development is regarded as Demography. According to Van Mayer, sociologist, Demography can be defined as 'the numerical analysis of the state and movement of human population inclusive of census enumeration and registration of vital processes and of whatever quantitative statistical analysis can be made of the state and movement of population on the fundamental census and registration data'.
Census is the process of collecting, compiling, evaluating analyzing and publishing demographic, social and economic data pertaining to specific point of time to all persons in a country. This process was first of all started by British in 1871, since then it is conducted every 10 years.
Rural and Urban Population
It is said that India lies in villages. Around 70% population of India lives in villages and is employed in primary sector. But in recent times this ratio of Rural/Urban population is changing fast. There are many factors most important of them is Migration. Due to unemployment and lack of facilities in rural set up people are immigrating into the cities in search of work and better living conditions. This migration has put a lot of strain on basic infrastructure of cities. The increasing population pressure on cities has resulted in coming up of slums. According to 2001 Census Delhi alone has slum population of 1,851,231, which is 18.7% of total population of Delhi.
QUICK FACTS ON INDIA DEMOGRAPHICS
POPULATION DENSITY :324 prsn/sq km
BIRTH RATE :2.2%
DEATH RATE :0.65%
TOTAL FERTILITY RATE :2.81/woman
LITERACY RATE :65.38
LIFE EXPECTANCY :68.59
SEX RATIO :933
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE :7.8%
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